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The far east

Back to The Far East: 500 to 401 B.C.

China and manchuria (warring states period of the chou dynasty)

The "Warring States" period continued, with chaos, corruption and division of the country. Even so, in the midst of this there was a profuse development of philosophies with rabid intellectual discussions as in earlier Athens. Mencius was a successor to Confucius who re-stated the latter's views and modified them so that he contributed greatly to the survival of Confucianism. Very different although not incompatible with Confucianists were the Legalists, who believed man basically bad and therefore must be curbed by stringent laws. The Naturalists had introduced the Yin (female) and Yang (male) principles which persist in Chinese thought even today. Taoism was expanded in this period to say that everything in a material world was relative, and that concepts existed only as contrasts. Eleven cities were considered to be very large, including the Ch'i capital, Lin-tze, consisting of 70,000 households, in modern Shantung province. By 325 B.C. regional lords had begun to call themselves "kings". Chopsticks were used in China at least by 400 B.C. Although Chinese tradition teaches that irrigation practices were still more ancient, it was in this and the next century that they were used on a large scale, along with intensive land clearing and the necessary hydraulics. (Ref. 46 , 213 , 260 )

The marshy coastal districts did not lend themselves to charioteering so the infantry armies of the southeastern states of Wu and Yueh began to dominate the battles; chariot fighting declined and by 300 B.C. there were infantry masses in the hundreds of thousands. But in the far west and north, the non-Chinese nomads had developed cavalry for new assaults on China. (Ref. 101 )

It is said that about 329 B.C. a Chinese general conquered the Tien Kingdom of Yunnan and settled there, introducing the Chinese culture to this region although it did not come under direct Chinese control until the 7th century C.E.. Recent excavations have shown a Bronze Age culture there with some indication of the use of iron. The art of the Yunnan people, including animal drawings, seems related to the people of the steppes of Asia. (Ref. 101 , 176 )

Japan

The Jomon hunting and fishing culture continued, with a mixed population, as indicated previously. (Ref. 45 )

Korea

No new information available for this century.

Southeast asia

The peoples of Southeast Asia had developed a complex agricultural civilization by this period, growing chiefly rice but also domesticated tubers and legumes, especially yams

This refers to large tuberous roots of the climbing vines of the genus Dioscorea and is not the same plant as the sweet potato of America which is sometimes called a "yam" but is the root of the Convolvulaceae family
. Their work animals were the ox and water buffalo. Bronze was not used in Vietnam until this century, although it had been used in Thailand for some 3,200 years and in China for 900 years. The reason for the slow spread of the metal is unknown. Burmese cotton was the best in the world and was exported in large quantities to India. (Ref. 176 , 213 )

Forward to The Far East: 300 to 201 B.C.

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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