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(a) At what temperature does water boil at an altitude of 1500 m (about 5000 ft) on a day when atmospheric pressure is 8 . 59 × 10 4 N/m 2 ? size 12{8 "." "59" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } ?} {} (b) What about at an altitude of 3000 m (about 10,000 ft) when atmospheric pressure is 7 . 00 × 10 4 N/m 2 ? size 12{7 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } ?} {}

What is the atmospheric pressure on top of Mt. Everest on a day when water boils there at a temperature of 70 . 0 º C? size 12{"70" "." 0°"C?"} {}

3 . 12 × 10 4 Pa size 12{ size 11{3 "." "12" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " Pa"}} {}

At a spot in the high Andes, water boils at 80 . 0 º C size 12{"80" "." 0°C} {} , greatly reducing the cooking speed of potatoes, for example. What is atmospheric pressure at this location?

What is the relative humidity on a 25 . 0 º C size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {} day when the air contains 18 . 0 g/m 3 size 12{"18" "." 0" g/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} of water vapor?

78.3%

What is the density of water vapor in g/m 3 size 12{"g/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} on a hot dry day in the desert when the temperature is 40 . 0 º C size 12{"40" "." 0°C} {} and the relative humidity is 6.00%?

A deep-sea diver should breathe a gas mixture that has the same oxygen partial pressure as at sea level, where dry air contains 20.9% oxygen and has a total pressure of 1 . 01 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "01"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . (a) What is the partial pressure of oxygen at sea level? (b) If the diver breathes a gas mixture at a pressure of 2 . 00 × 10 6 N/m 2 size 12{2 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , what percent oxygen should it be to have the same oxygen partial pressure as at sea level?

(a) 2 . 12 × 10 4 Pa size 12{ size 11{2 "." "12" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " Pa"}} {}

(b) 1 . 06 % size 12{ size 11{1 "." "06"%}} {}

The vapor pressure of water at 40 . 0 º C size 12{"40" "." 0°C} {} is 7 . 34 × 10 3 N/m 2 size 12{7 "." "34"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . Using the ideal gas law, calculate the density of water vapor in g/m 3 size 12{"g/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} that creates a partial pressure equal to this vapor pressure. The result should be the same as the saturation vapor density at that temperature ( 51 . 1 g/m 3 ) . size 12{ \( "51" "." "1 g/m" rSup { size 8{3} } \) "." } {}

Air in human lungs has a temperature of 37 . 0 º C size 12{"37" "." 0°C} {} and a saturation vapor density of 44 . 0 g/m 3 size 12{"44" "." "0 g/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} . (a) If 2.00 L of air is exhaled and very dry air inhaled, what is the maximum loss of water vapor by the person? (b) Calculate the partial pressure of water vapor having this density, and compare it with the vapor pressure of 6 . 31 × 10 3 N/m 2 size 12{6 "." "31"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} .

(a) 8 . 80 × 10 2 g size 12{ size 11{8 "." "80" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " g"}} {}

(b) 6 . 30 × 10 3 Pa size 12{ size 11{6 "." "30" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " Pa"}} {} ; the two values are nearly identical.

If the relative humidity is 90.0% on a muggy summer morning when the temperature is 20 . 0 º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} , what will it be later in the day when the temperature is 30 . 0 º C size 12{"30" "." 0°C} {} , assuming the water vapor density remains constant?

Late on an autumn day, the relative humidity is 45.0% and the temperature is 20 . 0 º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} . What will the relative humidity be that evening when the temperature has dropped to 10 . 0 º C size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {} , assuming constant water vapor density?

82.3%

Atmospheric pressure atop Mt. Everest is 3 . 30 × 10 4 N/m 2 size 12{3 "." "30"´"10" rSup { size 8{4} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . (a) What is the partial pressure of oxygen there if it is 20.9% of the air? (b) What percent oxygen should a mountain climber breathe so that its partial pressure is the same as at sea level, where atmospheric pressure is 1 . 01 × 10 5 N/m 2 ? size 12{1 "." "01" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } ?} {} (c) One of the most severe problems for those climbing very high mountains is the extreme drying of breathing passages. Why does this drying occur?

What is the dew point (the temperature at which 100% relative humidity would occur) on a day when relative humidity is 39.0% at a temperature of 20 . 0 º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} ?

4 . 77 º C size 12{ size 11{4 "." "77"°C}} {}

On a certain day, the temperature is 25 . 0 º C size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {} and the relative humidity is 90.0%. How many grams of water must condense out of each cubic meter of air if the temperature falls to 15 . 0 º C size 12{"15" "." 0°C} {} ? Such a drop in temperature can, thus, produce heavy dew or fog.

Integrated Concepts

The boiling point of water increases with depth because pressure increases with depth. At what depth will fresh water have a boiling point of 150 º C size 12{"150"°C} {} , if the surface of the water is at sea level?

38 . 3 m size 12{ size 11{"38" "." 3``m}} {}

Integrated Concepts

(a) At what depth in fresh water is the critical pressure of water reached, given that the surface is at sea level? (b) At what temperature will this water boil? (c) Is a significantly higher temperature needed to boil water at a greater depth?

Integrated Concepts

To get an idea of the small effect that temperature has on Archimedes’ principle, calculate the fraction of a copper block’s weight that is supported by the buoyant force in 0 º C size 12{0°C} {} water and compare this fraction with the fraction supported in 95 . 0 º C size 12{"95" "." 0°C} {} water.

F B / w Cu F B / w Cu = 1 . 02 size 12{ { { left ( {F rSub { size 8{B} } } slash {w rSub { size 8{"Cu"} } } right )} over { left ( {F rSub { size 8{B} } } slash {w rSub { size 8{"Cu"} } } right ) rSup { size 8{′} } } } =1 "." "02"} {} . The buoyant force supports nearly the exact same amount of force on the copper block in both circumstances.

Integrated Concepts

If you want to cook in water at 150 º C size 12{"150"°C} {} , you need a pressure cooker that can withstand the necessary pressure. (a) What pressure is required for the boiling point of water to be this high? (b) If the lid of the pressure cooker is a disk 25.0 cm in diameter, what force must it be able to withstand at this pressure?

Unreasonable Results

(a) How many moles per cubic meter of an ideal gas are there at a pressure of 1 . 00 × 10 14 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} and at 0 º C size 12{0°C} {} ? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which premise or assumption is responsible?

(a) 4 . 41 × 10 10 mol/m 3 size 12{ size 11{4 "." "41" times "10" rSup { size 8{"10"} } `"mol/m" rSup { size 8{3} } }} {}

(b) It’s unreasonably large.

(c) At high pressures such as these, the ideal gas law can no longer be applied. As a result, unreasonable answers come up when it is used.

Unreasonable Results

(a) An automobile mechanic claims that an aluminum rod fits loosely into its hole on an aluminum engine block because the engine is hot and the rod is cold. If the hole is 10.0% bigger in diameter than the 22 . 0 º C size 12{"22" "." 0°C} {} rod, at what temperature will the rod be the same size as the hole? (b) What is unreasonable about this temperature? (c) Which premise is responsible?

Unreasonable Results

The temperature inside a supernova explosion is said to be 2 . 00 × 10 13 K size 12{2 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } " K"} {} . (a) What would the average velocity v rms size 12{v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} of hydrogen atoms be? (b) What is unreasonable about this velocity? (c) Which premise or assumption is responsible?

(a) 7 . 03 × 10 8 m/s size 12{ size 11{7 "." "03" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } `"m/s"}} {}

(b) The velocity is too high—it’s greater than the speed of light.

(c) The assumption that hydrogen inside a supernova behaves as an idea gas is responsible, because of the great temperature and density in the core of a star. Furthermore, when a velocity greater than the speed of light is obtained, classical physics must be replaced by relativity, a subject not yet covered.

Unreasonable Results

Suppose the relative humidity is 80% on a day when the temperature is 30 . 0 º C size 12{"30" "." 0°C} {} . (a) What will the relative humidity be if the air cools to 25 . 0 º C size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {} and the vapor density remains constant? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which premise is responsible?

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics: physics of california. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11577/1.1
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