# 11.5 Substructure of the nucleus

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• Define and discuss the nucleus in an atom.
• Define atomic number.
• Define and discuss isotopes.
• Calculate the density of the nucleus.
• Explain nuclear force.

What is inside the nucleus? Why are some nuclei stable while others decay? (See [link] .) Why are there different types of decay ( $\alpha$ , $\beta$ and $\gamma$ )? Why are nuclear decay energies so large? Pursuing natural questions like these has led to far more fundamental discoveries than you might imagine.

We have already identified protons    as the particles that carry positive charge in the nuclei. However, there are actually two types of particles in the nuclei—the proton and the neutron , referred to collectively as nucleons    , the constituents of nuclei. As its name implies, the neutron    is a neutral particle ( $q=0$ ) that has nearly the same mass and intrinsic spin as the proton. [link] compares the masses of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Note how close the proton and neutron masses are, but the neutron is slightly more massive once you look past the third digit. Both nucleons are much more massive than an electron. In fact, ${m}_{p}=\text{1836}{m}_{e}$ and ${m}_{n}=\text{1839}{m}_{e}$ .

[link] also gives masses in terms of mass units that are more convenient than kilograms on the atomic and nuclear scale. The first of these is the unified atomic mass    unit (u), defined as

$\text{1 u}=1\text{.}\text{6605}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{27}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg.}$

This unit is defined so that a neutral carbon ${}^{\text{12}}\text{C}$ atom has a mass of exactly 12 u. Masses are also expressed in units of $\text{MeV/}{c}^{2}$ . These units are very convenient when considering the conversion of mass into energy (and vice versa), as is so prominent in nuclear processes. Using $E={\text{mc}}^{2}$ and units of $m$ in $\text{MeV/}{c}^{2}$ , we find that ${c}^{2}$ cancels and $E$ comes out conveniently in MeV. For example, if the rest mass of a proton is converted entirely into energy, then

$E={\text{mc}}^{2}=\left(\text{938.27 MeV/}{c}^{2}\right){c}^{2}=\text{938.27 MeV.}$

It is useful to note that 1 u of mass converted to energy produces 931.5 MeV, or

$\text{1 u}=\text{931.5 MeV/}{c}^{2}.$

All properties of a nucleus are determined by the number of protons and neutrons it has. A specific combination of protons and neutrons is called a nuclide    and is a unique nucleus. The following notation is used to represent a particular nuclide:

${}_{Z}^{A}{\text{X}}_{N},$

where the symbols $A$ , $\text{X}$ , $Z$ , and $N$ are defined as follows: The number of protons in a nucleus is the atomic number     $Z$ . X is the symbol for the element , such as Ca for calcium. However, once $Z$ is known, the element is known; hence, $Z$ and $\text{X}$ are redundant. For example, $Z=\text{20}$ is always calcium, and calcium always has $Z=\text{20}$ . $N$ is the number of neutrons in a nucleus. In the notation for a nuclide, the subscript $N$ is usually omitted. The symbol $A$ is defined as the number of nucleons or the total number of protons and neutrons ,

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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