# 11.4 The regression equation (modified r. bloom)  (Page 2/2)

 Page 2 / 2
$\stackrel{^}{y}=a+\text{bx}$

where $a=\overline{y}-b\cdot \overline{x}$ and $b=\frac{\Sigma \left(x-\overline{x}\right)\cdot \left(y-\overline{y}\right)}{\Sigma \left(x-\overline{x}{\right)}^{2}}$ .

$\overline{x}$ and $\overline{y}$ are the averages of the $x$ values and the $y$ values, respectively. The best fit line always passes through the point $\left(\overline{x},\overline{y}\right)$ .

The slope $b$ can be written as $b=r\cdot \left(\frac{{s}_{y}}{{s}_{x}}\right)$ where ${s}_{y}$ = the standard deviation of the $y$ values and ${s}_{x}$ = the standard deviation of the $x$ values. $r$ is the correlation coefficient which is discussed in the next section.

## Least squares criteria for best fit

The process of fitting the best fit line is called linear regression . The idea behind finding the best fit line is based on the assumption that the data are scattered about a straight line. The criteria for the best fit line is that the sum of the squared errors (SSE) is minimized, that is made as small as possible. Any other line you might choose would have a higher SSE than the best fit line. This best fit line is called the least squares regression line .

Computer spreadsheets, statistical software, and many calculators can quickly calculate the best fit line and create the graphs. The calculations tend to be tedious if done by hand. Instructions to use the TI-83, TI-83+, and TI-84+ calculators to find the best fit line and create a scatterplot are shown at the end of this section.

## Third exam vs final exam example:

The graph of the line of best fit for the third exam/final exam example is shown below:

The least squares regression line (best fit line) for the third exam/final exam example has the equation:

$\stackrel{^}{y}=-173.51+\text{4.83x}\phantom{\rule{20pt}{0ex}}$
• Remember, it is always important to plot a scatter diagram first. If the scatter plot indicates that there is a linear relationship betweenthe variables, then it is reasonable to use a best fit line to make predictions for $y$ given $x$ within the domain of $x$ -values in the sample data, but not necessarily for $x$ -values outside that domain.
• You could use the line to predict the final exam score for a student who earned a grade of 73 on the third exam.
• You should NOT use the line to predict the final exam score for a student who earned a grade of 50 on the third exam, because 50 is not within the domain of the x-values in the sample data, which are between 65 and 75.

## Understanding slope

The slope of the line, b, describes how changes in the variables are related. It is important to interpret the slope of the line in the context of the situation represented by the data. You should be able to write a sentence interpreting the slope in plain English.

INTERPRETATION OF THE SLOPE: The slope of the best fit line tells us how the dependent variable (y) changes for every one unit increase in the independent (x) variable, on average.

## Third exam vs final exam example

• Slope: The slope of the line is b = 4.83.
• Interpretation: For a one point increase in the score on the third exam, the final exam score increases by 4.83 points, on average.

## Using the linear regression t test: linregttest

1. In the STAT list editor, enter the X data in list L1 and the Y data in list L2, paired so that the corresponding (x,y) values are next to each other in the lists. (If a particular pair of values is repeated, enter it as many times as it appears in the data.)
2. On the STAT TESTS menu, scroll down with the cursor to select the LinRegTTest. (Be careful to select LinRegTTest as some calculators may also have a different item called LinRegTInt.)
3. On the LinRegTTest input screen enter: Xlist: L1 ; Ylist: L2 ; Freq: 1
4. On the next line, at the prompt β or ρ, highlight "≠ 0" and press ENTER
5. Leave the line for "RegEq:" blank
6. Highlight Calculate and press ENTER.

The output screen contains a lot of information. For now we will focus on a few items from the output, and will return later to the other items.

• The second line says y=a+bx. Scroll down to find the values a=-173.513, and b=4.8273 ; the equation of the best fit line is $\stackrel{^}{y}=-173.51+\text{4.83}x\phantom{\rule{20pt}{0ex}}$
• The two items at the bottom are $r^{2}$ = .43969 and $r$ =.663. For now, just note where to find these values; we will discuss them in the next two sections.

## Graphing the scatterplot and regression line

1. We are assuming your X data is already entered in list L1 and your Y data is in list L2
2. Press 2nd STATPLOT ENTER to use Plot 1
3. On the input screen for PLOT 1, highlight On and press ENTER
4. For TYPE: highlight the very first icon which is the scatterplot and press ENTER
5. Indicate Xlist: L1 and Ylist: L2
6. For Mark: it does not matter which symbol you highlight.
7. Press the ZOOM key and then the number 9 (for menu item "ZoomStat") ; the calculator will fit the window to the data
8. To graph the best fit line, press the "Y=" key and type the equation -173.5+4.83X into equation Y1. (The X key is immediately left of the STAT key). Press ZOOM 9 again to graph it.
9. Optional: If you want to change the viewing window, press the WINDOW key. Enter your desired window using Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, Ymax

what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!