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Western europe

The La Tene Celts were at their peak of power throughout France (Gaul), England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. In Spain there were also Celts, but Carthage had established a protectorate over all the Iberian tribes up as far as the Pyrenees. An interesting side-light on the nature of the early Iberian language is offered by Barry Fell. (Ref. 66 ) We have generally been told that the early language of the Mediterranean world was unique and that perhaps remnants today are to be found in Basque and tongues of the Caucasus. Fell says that a recent study would indicate that the old Iberic language was Semitic and closely related to classical Arabic. A recently found stone inscription from eastern Spain at Pujol was in the ancient Iberian letters but was Greek in language. This probably dates to about 300 B.C. when Carthage still dominated Mediterranean shipping.

The entire British Isles, called "Pretanic Islands of Albion and Ierne" were circumnavigated by Pytheas of Marseilles, but his story was not believed at that time. His journey had been made possible by the opening of the Straits of Gibralter as the entire Carthaginian navy had been withdrawn to attack Sicily. As a result of the astronomical observations made by Pytheas on that trip to Britain, he began to get the first hint of the curvature of the earth, and he incidentally located the Cornish tin mines. London may have had its origin about 400 B.C. when a Celtic king, Belin, rebuilt an earth wall around a few dozen huts where the Walbrook joins the Thames and then cut an opening in the south wall for a landing spot. (Ref. 222 ) That Carthaginians were also in Britain in this century is at- tested by the finding of Carthaginian coins in two primary areas, dating to this period.

This is probably the time when the Picts either invaded Scotland or made themselves known as an aboriginal people. Their real origin is unknown, although the most recent thought is that they may have migrated from the north of the continent. In later times they spoke P-Celtic, but this may have been acquired from a wave of Celts and probably does not represent their native tongue. The Romans named them "Picts", meaning "painted ones". (Ref. 91 , 170 , 196 )


A period of continued multiplication of the Germanic tribes.

Eastern europe

The basic populations of this region showed no basic change from the previous century. From the north down there were Finns, Balts, Slavs and finally the Scythians just north of the Black Sea. The uncertain history and legends of the Scythians were clarified, in part at least, by excavations of burial mounds in the 18th century C.E., with recovery of some twenty exquisitely carved gold objects found in a mine shaft and given to Czar Peter of Russia. The archeologists found subsequently that Herodotus ' descriptions of royal funerals was accurate, in that concubine, butler, cook, groom and stewards, all strangled, were buried with the royal personage. In addition gold cups, large collars made of twisted metal and other treasures, were included. It is apparent that gold was a sacred part of Scythian life, the metal coming from the Caucasus, Ural and distant Ural mountain ranges. We have then, an ancient barbarous, bloody people who at the same time were creative artists, working in gold. About 350 B.C. a still stronger, crueler, but related people, the Sauromatae, began crossing the Don, scattering the Scythians before them. Some of the latter went to Thrace (Romania) and some stayed in the Crimea, with a capital at Neapolis. If we are to believe Herodotus, writing a century earlier, the Sauromatae spoke a language similar to Scythian because some Amazon women had, in effect, seduced some Sythian boys and taken them back to their home across the Don. It was perhaps these women who allegedly rode and fought alongside their men, giving rise to the legend that Scythian women were warriors. Herodotus writes that no Sauromatae Amazon could marry until she had killed a man in battle. (Ref. 176 , 136 , 92 )

Forward to Europe: 300 to 201 B.C.

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Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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