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Although after the destruction of Veii by the Romans the Etruscan preponderance in central Italy came to an end, some Etruscan cities still flourished. Vulci had failed to help Veii in its death struggle and continued to exist as a thriving city. After a forty year truce, fighting again flared up between Rome and Tarquinii with the former the final victor in 314 B.C. At long last Caere had finally broken with Rome and had joined Tarquinii in its last days. Its independence gone, Caere still was a great cosmopolitan city to which Roman sons were sent to learn the Etruscan language and literature. (Ref. 75 )

In the last of the century the Gauls actually settled down in northern Italy (Cisalpine Gaul) laying the foundations for the cities of Turin, Bergamo and Milan. The Kyllyrioi disappeared from Sicily in the early century and slavery became the only form of involuntary labor and this remained so after the island was conquered by the Romans. (Ref. 249 ) (For more about Sicily, see NORTH CENTRAL AFRICA).

Central europe

The population of this region was essentially Celtic, particularly in Austria and Germany, although some Germanic tribes were wandering down from Scandinavia about the Vistula River and these may have been pushed somewhat west at this time by Huns leaving the region of the Volga. McEvedy (Ref. 136 ) writes that there were still no Teutons south of the latitude of Berlin and that this was to remain so for two more centuries. East of the Germanic tribes were the Balts and the Slavs.

The Hallstatt Celtic culture in Austria was based on salt which was mined particularly at Salzburg and at Durrnberg near Hallein. In Bohemia tin became an important export. The newer La Tene Culture evolved full flower in the old Celtic homelands, marking the second phase of the P-Celtic speakers' expansion. They developed an original art, part of which involved covering tiny surfaces of pots, sword sheaths and ornaments with mazes of lines, tiny animal figures and faces, all cut in minute detail. They manufactured brass and covered copper objects with tin and silvered them over with mercury.

In their first contacts with the Mediterranean world the Celtic people struck terror throughout the existing civilizations. They were tall, blond, with hair standing up stiff from their foreheads from lime washings, and then hanging long behind like horses' manes. They wore long mustaches and dressed in brightly colored shirts and breeches with cloaks fastened at the shoulder with brooches. The cloaks were striped or checkered. Some wore bronze helmets and chain breast armor, although others went naked into battle where they charged with wild screaming and singing, some on foot and some in four-wheeled chariots drawn by two horses and carrying one driver and one javelin thrower. Cavalry operated in the same way, each mount with two riders. But the most terrifying of all was their custom of cutting off their enemies' heads and nailing them over the doors of their huts.

In general the Celts preferred to remain potentially mobile and kept their possessions all in a state of readiness for travel, but in some locations they did build rather impressive settlements. One such was near Manching, Bavaria, where the outer wall was four miles long, enclosing an area of some forty thousand acres. There is evidence of goldsmiths, bronze foundries, iron and glass works, potteries and trading houses. Not far away was a foundry where sixty-two smelt furnaces have been excavated. Every Celtic town had small foundries and most had salt sources nearby. (Ref. 91 )

Questions & Answers

how environment affect demand and supply of commodity ?
Amos Reply
Wht at the criteria for market ?
what is difference between monitory policy and fiscal policy?
Malik Reply
monetary policy is a policy thrust by National Govt(CBN) to influence government spending, purchase &taxes
necessity of economics
Pamela Reply
I will say want,choice,opportunity cost,scarcity,scale of preference
what is monopoly market.How price output are determined under monopoly market
b) Monopoly market is an impecfect market where s single firm having the innovation to produce a particular commodity.Prices are determined through output since there are no other competitive.
Monopoly market:firm has market power & does not respond to market price
Explain the process of price determination under perfect competition market with suitable diagram
bisham Reply
Price determination under perfect competition via this process :firms have no market power to influence price rather firms respond to market price.
price is different from demand- demand is amount of commodity
Effah Reply
demand is amount /quantity of commodity a potential buyer is willing to buy at a given price at market
demand is a desire of customer on commodity with the ability to pay it and willing to buy it at given price of commodity
demand is price of what
Faith Reply
show that shortrun average cost
Baby Reply
what is economics
Mbah Reply
what is money
what is money
Difine macro economics
money is a medium of exchange between goods and services,maybe inform of currency.
Economics is study of how human beings strive to satisfy numerous wants using limited available resources.
how do you find the maximum number of workers the firms should employ order to produce where there are increasing returns
what are implications of computing national income?.
what is the formulae for calculating national income
it calculated by value added method
classify the production units like agriculture, banking, transport etc
money is anything that is generally acceptetable for human
Estimate the net value added(NVA) at fixed cost by each industrial structure
definition of unemployment
Adam Reply
what are the causes of unemployment?
Mbubi Reply
The main causes of unemployment are listed below. 1. Frictional unemployment 2. Cyclical unemployment 3. Structural unemployment
We can also categorize the causes on a broader sense as: 1. Political and 2. Social cause As unemployeement root causes are embaded in this two.
would opportunity cost exist if there was no scarcity?
yes just because the opportunity cost arose when there is Alternative to choose among the alternatives.
I am thinking that, if our resources were unlimited, then there wouldn't be any need to forgo some wants. Hence the inexistence if opportunity cost
politics has done what?
consider time assani
I'm Emmanuel,...I taught the main cause is the change in gov't.
...Lack of capital to set up a firm respectively
I would like to bring in Educational levels can also be the cause the cause of the problem respectively
lack of skills among the new generation is the serious issue.
Where I come from , I don't see why education or personal aspects seem to do with unimployment, technically the motivation and eigerness in all works of live is there , dispite the cultural influence and physical bearriors;the thing we lacking is Government Support and open market ethics.
sorry about that-(repation). We have a over powering ethical political system that's displacing the marketing asspects of economy and causing large scale unemployment right across the board...
can someone Explain Expansionary Monetary Policy and Contractionary Monetary Policy Using one of the instrument of Monetary Policy? Please am kinda lost here?. ta
Emmanuel Reply
using a graph show the case of substitute and compliment goods
Ade Reply
can anyone give me a simple explanation to Five Sector Macroeconomics?
Can someone please define what economics is
jason Reply
economics simply is a social science subject that study human behavior.
economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means that has alternative uses
Can someone please tell me how to calculate GDP
emmanual kapal to calculate GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has three method in calculating it (1)income approach (2) expenditure approach (3) value added method
thanks Alae
u are welcome
in basic terms economics is revered to as battery system, it date back to when Men sees the need to exchange sapless goods and produce to gain , either wealth , basic necessities or to establish trading ties for personal benefit or social asspects in terms of coexistence and continuity, future .
what is the law of demand
Berlinda Reply
keep other thing constant, when the price increases demand decrease when the price decreases demand increases of the commodity.
all things being equal,quantity demanded decrease as price increase and increase as price decrease
there's practial joke to it ..." the higher the demand ; scarcity, increase in production and drop in quality"... quite the controversy - for example China vs Europe, United States and we are all boxed up in between somewhere...
Other thing remain constant the low price of commodity the high quantity of commodity and vice versa is true
Explain Effective demand
Anita Reply
What is effective demand
like Modi is in demand...best example of effective demand
Don't get you
Anita you mean you don't get me or who?
level of demand that represents a real intention to purchase by people with the means to pay
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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