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Actually the great battle with Persia was not enjoined until after Philip's assassination and Alexander's coronation as king. Within a few years Alexander had conquered all western Asia and a part of India and Egypt, carving out an empire 3,000 miles wide and in most regions up to 1,000 miles from north to south, thus approaching the size of the United States. As accompanying maps will show, the boundaries were almost identical with the previously existing Persian Empire. All of this was conquered within about twelve years without motorized vehicles and only about 35,000 men including some 5,000 mercenaries. He initiated the use of a torsion catapult to shoot arrows and stones, beginning a whole new era in siege warfare. (Ref. 222 , 213 ) At least thousands and perhaps hundreds of thousands of Greeks followed in Alexander's footsteps, emigrating to the East and giving a deep Hellenic imprint over and above the purely military conquest. Alexander died in 323 B.C. at the age of thirty-three years, a man of tremendous vanity, at times kind and considerate and at other times vicious, cruel and destructive. He died in Mesopotamia, possibly of malaria. (Ref. 125 )

Alexander set up no competent administrations in the various conquered areas and after his death the empire rapidly collapsed, with division of the territory among the various Greek generals. Initially the divisions were as follows:

  • General Seleucus controlled the Asian part of the old Persian Empire and the south half of Asia Minor except the coast, clear across southwest Asia to the Indus
  • General Antigonus kept Macedonia itself, but by 301 B.C. he was killed in battle and his son Demetrius I was defeated as Lysimachus took the area of Thrace and Cassander took Macedonia and Greece
  • General Ptolemy took Egypt, along with most of the coast of the eastern Mediterranean, including Judea and the old Phoenicia and the coast of Asia Minor



In 400 B.C. the Gauls plundered Etruria in northern Italy, conquering Felsina, which subsequently became known as Bononia. Ten years later, under King Brennus, they sacked Rome itself and retreated only after the payment of 1,000 pounds of gold. Thus began the long Roman-Gallic wars which did not end until the time of Julius Caesar in the 1st century of the Christian era. In spite of the Gauls, Perusia, which had broken free from Clusium, was the most powerful Etruscan center in the upper Tiber Valley. The Clusines spread their alphabet up the Adriatic coast to Venetia and the northeast and it became the basis of the alphabets of Venetia, Illyria and Raetia as well as of the German and Scandinavian runes. Meanwhile the Romans also had to continue to fight the Etruscan city-state of Veii, destroying it about 396 B.C. and then take on the powerful and highly civilized Samnite tribes of southern Italy. The only Etrurian power left in the immediate vicinity of Rome was Tarquinii and a seven year war flared up with it in 358 B.C. In 343 B.C. the Greek cities in Campania (Naples area) joined the Samnites in their campaign against Rome, but in spite of all this warfare some advancement of civilization did occur in Rome. The Compromise of Camillus in 367 B.C. gave concessions to the Plebes and internal dissension stopped, leaving energies free for expansion. The Appian Way was started at this time. While the Etruscan towns had always remained small, chiefly in the 5,000 to 10,000 bracket, early in this century Rome probably passed the 10,000 mark and drew level with Tarentum, the largest Greek city in Italy. (Ref. 75 , 8 , 136 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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