# 11.3 Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom  (Page 2/7)

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## Bohr’s solution for hydrogen

Bohr was able to derive the formula for the hydrogen spectrum using basic physics, the planetary model of the atom, and some very important new proposals. His first proposal is that only certain orbits are allowed: we say that the orbits of electrons in atoms are quantized . Each orbit has a different energy, and electrons can move to a higher orbit by absorbing energy and drop to a lower orbit by emitting energy. If the orbits are quantized, the amount of energy absorbed or emitted is also quantized, producing discrete spectra. Photon absorption and emission are among the primary methods of transferring energy into and out of atoms. The energies of the photons are quantized, and their energy is explained as being equal to the change in energy of the electron when it moves from one orbit to another. In equation form, this is

$\Delta E=\text{hf}={E}_{i}-{E}_{f}.$

Here, $\Delta E$ is the change in energy between the initial and final orbits, and $\text{hf}$ is the energy of the absorbed or emitted photon. It is quite logical (that is, expected from our everyday experience) that energy is involved in changing orbits. A blast of energy is required for the space shuttle, for example, to climb to a higher orbit. What is not expected is that atomic orbits should be quantized. This is not observed for satellites or planets, which can have any orbit given the proper energy. (See [link] .)

[link] shows an energy-level diagram    , a convenient way to display energy states. In the present discussion, we take these to be the allowed energy levels of the electron. Energy is plotted vertically with the lowest or ground state at the bottom and with excited states above. Given the energies of the lines in an atomic spectrum, it is possible (although sometimes very difficult) to determine the energy levels of an atom. Energy-level diagrams are used for many systems, including molecules and nuclei. A theory of the atom or any other system must predict its energies based on the physics of the system.

Bohr was clever enough to find a way to calculate the electron orbital energies in hydrogen. This was an important first step that has been improved upon, but it does correctly describe many characteristics of hydrogen. Bohr proposed that only very specific circular orbits were allowed. The radius of these orbits is calculated to be
${r}_{\mathrm{n}}=\frac{{n}^{2}}{Z}{a}_{\mathrm{B}}$
where
$n=1,2,3,\dots ,$
$Z$ is the atomic number of the element, and
${a}_{\mathrm{B}}=0.529×{10}^{-10}\phantom{\rule{.1667em}{0ex}}\mathrm{m},$
is known as the Bohr radius. The value of $n$ largely determines the energy level of the atom and is called the principal quantum number . This equation can be used to calculate the radii of the allowed (quantized) electron orbits in any hydrogen-like atom . It is impressive that the formula gives the correct size of hydrogen, which is measured experimentally to be very close to the Bohr radius. This equation also tells us that the orbital radius is proportional to ${n}^{2}$ , as illustrated in [link] .

How we are making nano material?
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LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
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sciencedirect big data base
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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absolutely yes
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
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NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
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what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
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fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
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