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The relationships between the three common temperature scales is shown in [link] . Temperatures on these scales can be converted using the equations in [link] .

Temperature conversions
To convert from . . . Use this equation . . . Also written as . . .
Celsius to Fahrenheit T º F = 9 5 T º C + 32 size 12{T left (°F right )= { {9} over {5} } T left (°C right )+"32"} {} T º F = 9 5 T º C + 32 size 12{T rSub { size 8{°F} } = { {9} over {5} } T rSub { size 8{°C} } +"32"} {}
Fahrenheit to Celsius T º C = 5 9 T º F 32 size 12{T left (°C right )= { {5} over {9} } left [T left (°F right ) - "32" right ]} {} T º C = 5 9 T º F 32 size 12{T rSub { size 8{°C} } = { {5} over {9} } left (T rSub { size 8{°F} } - "32" right )} {}
Celsius to Kelvin T K = T º C + 273 . 15 size 12{T left (K right )=T left (°C right )+"273" "." "15"} {} T K = T º C + 273 . 15 size 12{T rSub { size 8{K} } =T rSub { size 8{°C} } +"273" "." "15"} {}
Kelvin to Celsius T º C = T K 273 . 15 size 12{T left (°C right )=T left (K right ) - "273" "." "15"} {} T º C = T K 273 . 15 size 12{T rSub { size 8{°C} } =T rSub { size 8{K} } - "273" "." "15"} {}
Fahrenheit to Kelvin T K = 5 9 T º F 32 + 273 . 15 size 12{T left (K right )= { {5} over {9} } left [T left (°F right ) - "32" right ]+"273" "." "15"} {} T K = 5 9 T º F 32 + 273 . 15 size 12{T rSub { size 8{K} } = { {5} over {9} } left (T rSub { size 8{°F} } - "32" right )+"273" "." "15"} {}
Kelvin to Fahrenheit T ( º F ) = 9 5 T K 273 . 15 + 32 size 12{T \( °F \) = { {9} over {5} } left [T left (K right ) - "273" "." "15" right ]+"32"} {} T º F = 9 5 T K 273 . 15 + 32 size 12{T rSub { size 8{°F} } = { {9} over {5} } left (T rSub { size 8{K} } - "273" "." "15" right )+"32"} {}

Notice that the conversions between Fahrenheit and Kelvin look quite complicated. In fact, they are simple combinations of the conversions between Fahrenheit and Celsius, and the conversions between Celsius and Kelvin.

Converting between temperature scales: room temperature

“Room temperature” is generally defined to be 25 º C size 12{"25"°C} {} . (a) What is room temperature in º F size 12{°F} {} ? (b) What is it in K?

Strategy

To answer these questions, all we need to do is choose the correct conversion equations and plug in the known values.

Solution for (a)

1. Choose the right equation. To convert from º C size 12{°C} {} to º F size 12{°F} {} , use the equation

T º F = 9 5 T º C + 32 . size 12{T rSub { size 8{°F} } = { {9} over {5} } T rSub { size 8{°C} } +"32" "." } {}

2. Plug the known value into the equation and solve:

T º F = 9 5 25 º C + 32 = 77 º F . size 12{T rSub { size 8{°F} } = { {9} over {5} } "25"°C+"32"="77"°F "." } {}

Solution for (b)

1. Choose the right equation. To convert from º C size 12{°C} {} to K, use the equation

T K = T º C + 273 . 15 . size 12{T rSub { size 8{K} } =T rSub { size 8{°C} } +"273" "." "15" "." } {}

2. Plug the known value into the equation and solve:

T K = 25 º C + 273 . 15 = 298 K . size 12{T rSub { size 8{K} } ="25"°C+"273" "." "15"="298"`K "." } {}

Converting between temperature scales: the reaumur scale

The Reaumur scale is a temperature scale that was used widely in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries. On the Reaumur temperature scale, the freezing point of water is 0 º R size 12{0°R} {} and the boiling temperature is 80 º R size 12{"80"°R} {} . If “room temperature” is 25 º C size 12{"25"°C} {} on the Celsius scale, what is it on the Reaumur scale?

Strategy

To answer this question, we must compare the Reaumur scale to the Celsius scale. The difference between the freezing point and boiling point of water on the Reaumur scale is 80 º R size 12{"80"°R} {} . On the Celsius scale it is 100 º C size 12{"100"°C} {} . Therefore 100 º C = 80 º R size 12{"100"°C="80"°R} {} . Both scales start at 0 º size 12{0°} {} for freezing, so we can derive a simple formula to convert between temperatures on the two scales.

Solution

1. Derive a formula to convert from one scale to the other:

T º R = 0 . 8 º R º C × T º C . size 12{T rSub { size 8{°R} } = { {0 "." 8°R} over {°C} } times T rSub { size 8{°C} } "." } {}

2. Plug the known value into the equation and solve:

T º R = 0 . 8 º R º C × 25 º C = 20 º R . size 12{T rSub { size 8{°R} } = { {0 "." 8°R} over {°C} } times "25"°C="20"°R "." } {}

Temperature ranges in the universe

[link] shows the wide range of temperatures found in the universe. Human beings have been known to survive with body temperatures within a small range, from 24 º C size 12{"24"°C} {} to 44 º C size 12{"44"°C} {} ( 75 º F size 12{ \( "75"°F} {} to 111 º F size 12{"111"°F} {} ). The average normal body temperature is usually given as 37 . 0 º C size 12{"37" "." 0°C} {} ( 98 . 6 º F size 12{"98" "." 6°F} {} ), and variations in this temperature can indicate a medical condition: a fever, an infection, a tumor, or circulatory problems (see [link] ).

This figure consists of four different infrared thermographs of a person's head and neck, taken when the person's head was positioned at four different angles. The person's face and neck are mostly red and orange, with patches of white, green, and yellow. The red and white colors correspond to hot areas. The person's hair ranges in color from green to light blue to dark blue. The blue color corresponds to cold areas.
This image of radiation from a person’s body (an infrared thermograph) shows the location of temperature abnormalities in the upper body. Dark blue corresponds to cold areas and red to white corresponds to hot areas. An elevated temperature might be an indication of malignant tissue (a cancerous tumor in the breast, for example), while a depressed temperature might be due to a decline in blood flow from a clot. In this case, the abnormalities are caused by a condition called hyperhidrosis. (credit: Porcelina81, Wikimedia Commons)

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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How we can toraidal magnetic field
Aditya Reply
How we can create polaidal magnetic field
Aditya
4
Mykayuh Reply
Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
Gre Reply
where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!
Gre Reply
Practice Key Terms 9

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Source:  OpenStax, Physics 101. OpenStax CNX. Jan 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11479/1.1
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