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Since changing electric fields create relatively weak magnetic fields, they could not be easily detected at the time of Maxwell’s hypothesis. Maxwell realized, however, that oscillating charges, like those in AC circuits, produce changing electric fields. He predicted that these changing fields would propagate from the source like waves generated on a lake by a jumping fish.

The waves predicted by Maxwell would consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields—defined to be an electromagnetic wave (EM wave). Electromagnetic waves would be capable of exerting forces on charges great distances from their source, and they might thus be detectable. Maxwell calculated that electromagnetic waves would propagate at a speed given by the equation

c = 1 μ 0 ε 0 . size 12{"c "= { {1} over { sqrt {μ rSub { size 8{0} } ε rSub { size 8{0} } } } } } {}

When the values for μ 0 size 12{μ rSub { size 8{0} } } {} and ε 0 size 12{ε rSub { size 8{0} } } {} are entered into the equation for c , we find that

c = 1 ( 8 . 85 × 10 12 C 2 N m 2 ) ( × 10 7 T m A ) = 3 . 00 × 10 8 m/s , size 12{"c "= { {1} over { sqrt { \( 8 "." "85" times "10" rSup { size 8{-"12"} } { {C rSup { size 8{2} } } over {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } } \) \( 4π´"10" rSup { size 8{-7} } { {T cdot m} over {A} } \) } } } =" 3" "." "00"´" 10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s"} {}

which is the speed of light. In fact, Maxwell concluded that light is an electromagnetic wave having such wavelengths that it can be detected by the eye.

Other wavelengths should exist—it remained to be seen if they did. If so, Maxwell’s theory and remarkable predictions would be verified, the greatest triumph of physics since Newton. Experimental verification came within a few years, but not before Maxwell’s death.

Hertz’s observations

The German physicist Heinrich Hertz (1857–1894) was the first to generate and detect certain types of electromagnetic waves in the laboratory. Starting in 1887, he performed a series of experiments that not only confirmed the existence of electromagnetic waves, but also verified that they travel at the speed of light.

Hertz used an AC RLC size 12{ ital "RLC"} {} (resistor-inductor-capacitor) circuit that resonates at a known frequency f 0 = 1 LC size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } = { {1} over {2π sqrt { ital "LC"} } } } {} and connected it to a loop of wire as shown in [link] . High voltages induced across the gap in the loop produced sparks that were visible evidence of the current in the circuit and that helped generate electromagnetic waves.

Across the laboratory, Hertz had another loop attached to another RLC size 12{ ital "RLC"} {} circuit, which could be tuned (as the dial on a radio) to the same resonant frequency as the first and could, thus, be made to receive electromagnetic waves. This loop also had a gap across which sparks were generated, giving solid evidence that electromagnetic waves had been received.

The circuit diagram shows a simple circuit containing an alternating voltage source, a resistor R, capacitor C and a transformer, which provides the impedance. The transformer is shown to consist of two coils separated by a core. In parallel with the transformer is connected a wire loop labeled as Loop one Transmitter with a small gap that creates sparks across the gap. The sparks create electromagnetic waves, which are transmitted through the air to a similar loop next to it labeled as Loop two Receiver. These waves induce sparks in Loop two, and are detected by the tuner shown as a rectangular box connected to it.
The apparatus used by Hertz in 1887 to generate and detect electromagnetic waves. An RLC size 12{ ital "RLC"} {} circuit connected to the first loop caused sparks across a gap in the wire loop and generated electromagnetic waves. Sparks across a gap in the second loop located across the laboratory gave evidence that the waves had been received.

Hertz also studied the reflection, refraction, and interference patterns of the electromagnetic waves he generated, verifying their wave character. He was able to determine wavelength from the interference patterns, and knowing their frequency, he could calculate the propagation speed using the equation υ = size 12{υ=fλ} {} (velocity—or speed—equals frequency times wavelength). Hertz was thus able to prove that electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light. The SI unit for frequency, the hertz ( 1 Hz = 1 cycle/sec size 12{1" Hz"=1" cycle/sec"} {} ), is named in his honor.

Section summary

  • Electromagnetic waves consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields and propagate at the speed of light c . They were predicted by Maxwell, who also showed that
    c = 1 μ 0 ε 0 , size 12{"c "= { {1} over { sqrt {μ rSub { size 8{0} } ε rSub { size 8{0} } } } } } {}

    where μ 0 size 12{μ rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the permeability of free space and ε 0 size 12{ε rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the permittivity of free space.

  • Maxwell’s prediction of electromagnetic waves resulted from his formulation of a complete and symmetric theory of electricity and magnetism, known as Maxwell’s equations.
  • These four equations are paraphrased in this text, rather than presented numerically, and encompass the major laws of electricity and magnetism. First is Gauss’s law for electricity, second is Gauss’s law for magnetism, third is Faraday’s law of induction, including Lenz’s law, and fourth is Ampere’s law in a symmetric formulation that adds another source of magnetism—changing electric fields.

Problems&Exercises

Verify that the correct value for the speed of light c is obtained when numerical values for the permeability and permittivity of free space ( μ 0 size 12{μ rSub { size 8{0} } } {} and ε 0 size 12{ε rSub { size 8{0} } } {} ) are entered into the equation c = 1 μ 0 ε 0 size 12{"c "= { {1} over { sqrt {μ rSub { size 8{0} } ε rSub { size 8{0} } } } } } {} .

Show that, when SI units for μ 0 size 12{μ rSub { size 8{0} } } {} and ε 0 size 12{ε rSub { size 8{0} } } {} are entered, the units given by the right-hand side of the equation in the problem above are m/s.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to physics for vanguard high school (derived from college physics). OpenStax CNX. Oct 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11715/1.1
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