<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Defining a market    is often controversial. For example, Microsoft in the early 2000s had a dominant share of the software for computer operating systems. However, in the total market for all computer software and services, including everything from games to scientific programs, the Microsoft share was only about 14% in 2014. A narrowly defined market will tend to make concentration appear higher, while a broadly defined market will tend to make it appear smaller.

There are two especially important shifts affecting how markets are defined in recent decades: one centers on technology and the other centers on globalization    . In addition, these two shifts are interconnected. With the vast improvement in communications technologies, including the development of the Internet, a consumer can order books or pet supplies from all over the country or the world. As a result, the degree of competition many local retail businesses face has increased. The same effect may operate even more strongly in markets for business supplies, where so-called “business-to-business” websites can allow buyers and suppliers from anywhere in the world to find each other.

Globalization has changed the boundaries of markets. As recently as the 1970s, it was common for measurements of concentration ratios and HHIs to stop at national borders. Now, many industries find that their competition comes from the global market. A few decades ago, three companies, General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler, dominated the U.S. auto market. By 2014, however, these three firms were making less than half of U.S. auto sales, and facing competition from well-known car manufacturers such as Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Volkswagen, Mitsubishi, and Mazda. When HHIs are calculated with a global perspective, concentration in most major industries—including cars—is lower than in a purely domestic context.

Because attempting to define a particular market can be difficult and controversial, the Federal Trade Commission has begun to look less at market share and more at the data on actual competition between businesses. For example, in February 2007, Whole Foods Market and Wild Oats Market announced that they wished to merge. These were the two largest companies in the market that the government defined as “premium natural and organic supermarket chains.” However, one could also argue that they were two relatively small companies in the broader market for all stores that sell groceries or specialty food products.

Rather than relying on a market definition, the government antitrust regulators looked at detailed evidence on profits and prices for specific stores in different cities, both before and after other competitive stores entered or exited. Based on that evidence, the Federal Trade Commission decided to block the merger. After two years of legal battles, the merger was eventually allowed in 2009 under the conditions that Whole Foods sell off the Wild Oats brand name and a number of individual stores, to preserve competition in certain local markets. For more on the difficulties of defining markets, refer to Monopoly .

This new approach to antitrust regulation involves detailed analysis of specific markets and companies, instead of defining a market and counting up total sales. A common starting point is for antitrust regulators to use statistical tools and real-world evidence to estimate the demand curves and supply curves faced by the firms that are proposing the merger. A second step is to specify how competition occurs in this specific industry. Some possibilities include competing to cut prices, to raise output, to build a brand name through advertising, and to build a reputation for good service or high quality. With these pieces of the puzzle in place, it is then possible to build a statistical model that estimates the likely outcome for consumers if the two firms are allowed to merge. Of course, these models do require some degree of subjective judgment, and so they can become the subject of legal disputes between the antitrust authorities and the companies that wish to merge.

Key concepts and summary

A corporate merger involves two private firms joining together. An acquisition refers to one firm buying another firm. In either case, two formerly independent firms become one firm. Antitrust laws seek to ensure active competition in markets, sometimes by preventing large firms from forming through mergers and acquisitions, sometimes by regulating business practices that might restrict competition, and sometimes by breaking up large firms into smaller competitors.

A four-firm concentration ratio is one way of measuring the extent of competition in a market. It is calculated by adding the market shares—that is, the percentage of total sales—of the four largest firms in the market. A Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is another way of measuring the extent of competition in a market. It is calculated by taking the market shares of all firms in the market, squaring them, and then summing the total.

The forces of globalization and new communications and information technology have increased the level of competition faced by many firms by increasing the amount of competition from other regions and countries.

Problems

Use [link] to calculate the four-firm concentration ratio for the U.S. auto market. Does this indicate a concentrated market or not?

(Source: http://www.zacks.com/commentary/27690/auto-industry-stock-outlook-june-2013)
Global auto manufacturers with top four u.s. market share, june 2013
GM 19%
Ford 17%
Toyota 14%
Chrysler 11%
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Use [link] and [link] to calculate the Herfindal-Hirschman Index for the U.S. auto market. Would the FTC approve a merger between GM and Ford?

(Source: http://www.zacks.com/commentary/27690/auto-industry-stock-outlook-june-2013)
Global auto manufacturers with additional u.s. market share, june 2013
Honda 10%
Nissan 7%
Hyundai 5%
Kia 4%
Subaru 3%
Volkswagen 3%
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

factor affecting or influencing changes in supply
Sham Reply
What is economics
Khurram Reply
we study how to allocate scare resouces to satisfied unlimited wants.
Adil
Scenario affecting change in income in demand
Janiz Reply
what economic
guuguule Reply
it is the situation where by im a market there is only one supplier and producer of a certain comodity that has no close substitute or competitor
Sepiso Reply
yes
Alhaji
what is demand and supply
Alhaji
demand is the amount of a goods or service that consumers are willing to buy at a particular price, while is to provide something,to make something available for use.
jago
I need a scenario affecting change in income (demand)
Janiz
what is Economics?
Pintu Reply
Is the study of human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scares mean which have alternative use
Alhaji
yes
Tawa
what is monopoly
Alhaji
what are the difficultés if retail prix index for calculating thé value of money
Oscar
hmm OK wait
Castino
what is labour
Mamudou Reply
LABOUR is a measure of work done by human being
Blessing
It is all form of human effort use to utilize in production
Alhaji
Why is scarcity a foundermental problem in economics
Alhaji
Why is scarcity a foundermental problem in economics
Alhaji Reply
scarcity occur unbalance demand and supply at this time cost goods increase then inflation very increase
Tesfaye
scarcity is a foundermental problem because its a natural situation and it affects the world at Large.in other words,it's limit in supply relating to deman
Akwosih
'Economics is about making choices in the presence of scarcity"
manoj Reply
. 'Economics is about making choices in the presence of scarcity" - Dscuss.
manoj
describe the producer's scarce resources.. I.e land,Labour,capital and enterprise
Alfhah Reply
short in supply
Charles
What are human behaviour?
Regina Reply
the rationality in decision making
Charles
how can you describe economic goods in a much better easier way?
Alfhah Reply
any thing that have utility
Charles
what is deman and supply
Aruna Reply
Demand can be defined as the ability and willingness to buy commodities in a given price of goods and services in a particular period of time
Alasana
supply refers to the ability and willingness to offered commodities for sale in a given price of goods and services in a period of time .
Alasana
Demand can refer to the ability and willingness to purchase a commodity at a giving price and time.
habib
what must the producer do if total costs exceed total revenue
Mmusi Reply
raise price
Nguyen
reduce cost
Charles
scarcity resources sample
nawala Reply
land
Charles

Get the best Principles of economics course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Principles of economics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask