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Illustration shows the effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on target organs, and the placement of the preganglionic neurons that mediate these effects. The parasympathetic system causes pupils and bronchi to constrict, slows the heart rate, and stimulates salivation, digestion, and bile secretion. Preganglionic neurons that mediate these effects are all located in the brain stem. Preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic system that are located in the sacral cause the bladder to contract. The sympathetic system causes pupils and bronchi to dilate, increases heart rate, inhibits digestion, stimulates the breakdown of glycogen and the secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and inhibits contraction of the bladder. The preganglionic neurons that mediate these effects are all located in the spine.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems often have opposing effects on target organs.

Most preganglionic neurons in the sympathetic nervous system originate in the spinal cord, as illustrated in [link] . The axons of these neurons release acetylcholine    on postganglionic neurons within sympathetic ganglia (the sympathetic ganglia form a chain that extends alongside the spinal cord). The acetylcholine activates the postganglionic neurons. Postganglionic neurons then release norepinephrine    onto target organs. As anyone who has ever felt a rush before a big test, speech, or athletic event can attest, the effects of the sympathetic nervous system are quite pervasive. This is both because one preganglionic neuron synapses on multiple postganglionic neurons, amplifying the effect of the original synapse, and because the adrenal gland also releases norepinephrine (and the closely related hormone epinephrine) into the blood stream. The physiological effects of this norepinephrine release include dilating the trachea and bronchi (making it easier for the animal to breathe), increasing heart rate, and moving blood from the skin to the heart, muscles, and brain (so the animal can think and run). The strength and speed of the sympathetic response helps an organism avoid danger, and scientists have found evidence that it may also increase LTP—allowing the animal to remember the dangerous situation and avoid it in the future.

Parasympathetic nervous system

While the sympathetic nervous system is activated in stressful situations, the parasympathetic nervous system    allows an animal to “rest and digest.” One way to remember this is to think that during a restful situation like a picnic, the parasympathetic nervous system is in control (“picnic” and “parasympathetic” both start with “p”). Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons have cell bodies located in the brainstem and in the sacral (toward the bottom) spinal cord, as shown in [link] . The axons of the preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine on the postganglionic neurons, which are generally located very near the target organs. Most postganglionic neurons release acetylcholine onto target organs, although some release nitric oxide.

The parasympathetic nervous system resets organ function after the sympathetic nervous system is activated (the common adrenaline dump you feel after a ‘fight-or-flight’ event). Effects of acetylcholine release on target organs include slowing of heart rate, lowered blood pressure, and stimulation of digestion.

Sensory-somatic nervous system

The sensory-somatic nervous system is made up of cranial and spinal nerves and contains both sensory and motor neurons. Sensory neurons transmit sensory information from the skin, skeletal muscle, and sensory organs to the CNS. Motor neurons transmit messages about desired movement from the CNS to the muscles to make them contract. Without its sensory-somatic nervous system, an animal would be unable to process any information about its environment (what it sees, feels, hears, and so on) and could not control motor movements. Unlike the autonomic nervous system, which has two synapses between the CNS and the target organ, sensory and motor neurons have only one synapse—one ending of the neuron is at the organ and the other directly contacts a CNS neuron. Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter released at these synapses.

Humans have 12 cranial nerves , nerves that emerge from or enter the skull (cranium), as opposed to the spinal nerves, which emerge from the vertebral column. Each cranial nerve is accorded a name, which are detailed in [link] . Some cranial nerves transmit only sensory information. For example, the olfactory nerve transmits information about smells from the nose to the brainstem. Other cranial nerves transmit almost solely motor information. For example, the oculomotor nerve controls the opening and closing of the eyelid and some eye movements. Other cranial nerves contain a mix of sensory and motor fibers. For example, the glossopharyngeal nerve has a role in both taste (sensory) and swallowing (motor).

Illustration shows the underside of the brain. The twelve cranial nerves cluster around the brain stem, and are symmetrically located on each side. The olfactory nerve is short and lobe-like, and is located closest to the front. Directly behind this is the optic nerve, then the oculomotor nerve. All these nerves are located in front of the brain stem. The trigeminal nerve, which is the thickest, is located on either side of the brain stem. It forms three branches shortly after leaving the brain. The trochlear nerve is a small nerve in front of the trigeminal nerve. Behind the brain stem are the smaller facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves. The nerve furthest back is the accessory nerve.
The human brain contains 12 cranial nerves that receive sensory input and control motor output for the head and neck.

Spinal nerves transmit sensory and motor information between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. Each of the 31 spinal nerves (in humans) contains both sensory and motor axons. The sensory neuron cell bodies are grouped in structures called dorsal root ganglia and are shown in [link] . Each sensory neuron has one projection—with a sensory receptor ending in skin, muscle, or sensory organs—and another that synapses with a neuron in the dorsal spinal cord. Motor neurons have cell bodies in the ventral gray matter of the spinal cord that project to muscle through the ventral root. These neurons are usually stimulated by interneurons within the spinal cord but are sometimes directly stimulated by sensory neurons.

Illustration shows a cross section of the spinal cord. The gray matter forms an X inside the white matter. A spinal nerve extends from the left arm of the X, and another extends from the left leg of the X. The two nerves join together to the left of the spine. The right arm and leg of the X form a symmetrical nerve. The part of the nerve that exits from the leg of the X is called the ventral root, and the part that exists from the arm of the X is called the dorsal root. The ventral root is on the belly side, and the dorsal root is on the back side. The dorsal root ganglion is a bulge halfway between where the nerve leaves the spine and where the dorsal and ventral roots join. Sensory neuron somas cluster in the dorsal root. Motor neuron somas cluster in the gray matter in the leg of the X. Motor neuron axons are bundled in the ventral root.
Spinal nerves contain both sensory and motor axons. The somas of sensory neurons are located in dorsal root ganglia. The somas of motor neurons are found in the ventral portion of the gray matter of the spinal cord.

Section summary

The peripheral nervous system contains both the autonomic and sensory-somatic nervous systems. The autonomic nervous system provides unconscious control over visceral functions and has two divisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system is activated in stressful situations to prepare the animal for a “fight or flight” response. The parasympathetic nervous system is active during restful periods. The sensory-somatic nervous system is made of cranial and spinal nerves that transmit sensory information from skin and muscle to the CNS and motor commands from the CNS to the muscles.

Art connections

[link] Which of the following statements is false?

  1. The parasympathetic pathway is responsible for relaxing the body, while the sympathetic pathway is responsible for preparing for an emergency.
  2. Most preganglionic neurons in the sympathetic pathway originate in the spinal cord.
  3. Slowing of the heartbeat is a parasympathetic response.
  4. Parasympathetic neurons are responsible for releasing norepinephrine on the target organ, while sympathetic neurons are responsible for releasing acetylcholine.

[link] D

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
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for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, University of georgia concepts of biology. OpenStax CNX. May 28, 2013 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11526/1.2
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