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The scientist finds some igneous rock which he assumes to be the same age as the sedimentary rock in which the fossil was found.

The scientist measures the ratio of parent to daughter elements in this igneous rock.

The scientist concludes the age of the igneous rock, as previously explained.

The scientist concludes the age of the fossil from the age of the igneous rock.

Link to movie: Fossil dating 6’14”

<iframe width="425" height="349" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/K5GWSbBkjuk?hl=en&fs=1" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

Caption: This is a 6’14” video in which radiometric dating is explained.

Fossil tourism

South Africa has a number of fossil-rich areas which attract tourists. The Cradle of Mankind (Maropeng, Sterkfontein, Kromdraai and surrounding areas) andLangebaan are examples of places in South Africa which attract fossil tourism.

Maropeng is a Tswana word for the origin of mankind.

Living fossils

Many creatures which disappeared from the fossil record millions of geological years ago have been found to be alive still and almost identical to theirfossilized counterparts.

There are many examples of living fossils. The Tuatara, which looks like a lizard with a beak-shaped head, disappears from the record 135 milliongeological years ago, but is still alive. Lingula, a worm-like creature which disappears from the record about 400 million years ago, not very far from thebeginning of metazoan evolution, is still alive and shows no sign of significant evolution from its fossilized ancestors. This suggests that we maybe interpreting the fossil record incorrectly, and our conclusions based on it may be wrong.

Activity: fossils

1.Name / give the term for:

  • Turning to stone
  • A fossil in which the surroundings became stone, leaving a cavity where the body had been
  • The time period and era, according to the geological column, when dinosaurs first appeared
  • The time period and era, according to the geological column, when dinosaurs became extinct
  • A person who studies fossils
  • A person who studies rocks
  • Layers of deposited material
  • No members of that organism exist anymore
  • The time era, according to the geological column, when mankind evolved

2.For each of the following sentences, say whether the information is: (Circle i / ii / iii)

  • Accepted by definition if people have defined this to be so, or
  • Known by observation if people have observed this to be so, or
  • Deduced if people have come to this knowledge by reasoning.

  • During petrifaction, minerals enter, harden, and turn a body to stone.[ i / ii / iii]
  • The Triassic Period is more recent than the Permian Period. [ i / ii / iii]
  • The oldest fossils are 650 million years old. [ i / ii / iii]
  • A film fossil is a carbon mark left on rock e.g. by leaves. [ i / ii / iii]
  • The deepest rocks with reptile fossils are classed as Carboniforous. [ i / ii / iii]
  • Reptiles first evolved 350 million years ago, at the start of the Carboniforous period. [ i / ii / iii]
  • Only 2/3 of all types of organisms which have ever lived have left any fossils.[ i / ii / iii]

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
why and for what was five kingdom of classification of organisms introduced
give the ans as fast as possible
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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