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Religious language, action and imagery is rarely straightforward. Religions deal with things that can not be easily expressed in an ordinary way. Symbols are used to point towards the Divine. This module explores religious symbolism.

A symbol is something that stands for or points to something else. The flag of a country, for instance, is a well–known symbol to all of us and when we see it, it reminds us of, and represents our country.

Symbolism can therefore be called the systematic use of symbols to represent or refer to something. It is of course true that all language is symbolic because we use words to refer to things, matters and ideas all the time. The word “dog” is not itself a dog, it is just a symbolic representation which English-speakers have agreed refers to the furry annimal that lives with us.

If we narrow it down though, we can say that symbols are words, images and figures that have special meaning since they refer to special things.

In religious language and usage several symbols can also be identified and symbols play an important in conveying information and messages of a religious nature. Religious symbols often serve as a binding factor in the sense that they create a feeling of solidarity between followers of that particular religious tradition. There are a few that will immediately be recognised as religious symbols:

✡ - The Star of David is a case in point because this symbol, recognised by all Jews as referring to the religion of Judaism, serves to create a sense of identity and belonging.

☪ - Religious symbols have come to represent certain things. When one for instance see a crescent with a star in it, depicted on paper, cloth or even on a wall, there is not the slightest doubt that that symbol represents the religion of Islam.

☸ - Similarly, a picture or drawing of the eight–spoked wheel reminds us of the Buddha and his teachings of the eightfold path and thus becomes a symbol of Buddhism.

ॐ - The Aum sign, which is actually a written syllable in the Sanskrit and Tamil languages and which is used as a chant during meditation, has become widely accepted as a symbol for Hinduism.

✞ - In Christianity, the cross, whether on paper, made from wood in differing sizes, as jewelry and so on, serves as a symbol of the death of Christ. Jesus Christ, so Christians believe, died on the cross for the sin of humanity. In fact, the plain cross is a simplified version of the crucifix , which shows a more or less realistic representation of the crucified Jesus. In other words, a cross is a symbol of a symbol!

α ω - The letters Alpha and Omega, being the first and last letters respectively of the Greek language, have also become Christian symbols. According to the Christian New testament, Jesus Christ referred to himself as the “Alpha and the Omega”.

In the case of the Prophet Muhammad, one could also say that the letters PBUH behind his name, especially in Muslim writings, are symbolic because they refer to the words “Peace Be Upon Him” which is the English rendering of the original Arabic.

A religious symbol in a secular context (c) dbking/Flickr CC BY 2.0

Symbols of a religious nature are of course not confined to formal religious acts or institutions. At the top of the building in Washington, USA, that houses that country's Supreme Court, a row of the history's lawgivers have been sculptured. with Moses and the Ten Commandments in the middle. In this case, Moses is depicted as a symbol of law and justice. A religious symbol has thus been used in a secular context

Symbols are of course not just represented in drawings, sculpture or wood but very much also by actions. From the adherents’ perspectives, of course, these activities are more than symbolic: they are deeply meaningful activities that connect them to the most important aspects of their religion. However, when we look at them from the outside, we see their symbolic nature.

When Christians celebrate the Mass or Eucharist, it becomes a symbolic meal of the last supper that Jesus ate with his disciples and the sacrifice of his body and blood on the cross is remembered. To the Christians themselves, this is not symbolic. Most denominations teach that the bread and wine really is the body and blood of Christ, in a mystical sense that does not stop them from also remaining bread and wine. However, from our perspective we can say that this is a symbolic action. The bread does not physically become a piece of human flesh that we can do a DNA test on! But religious people are generally not aware of the technical meaning of the term “symbol”, and may become upset if you point out the symbolic nature of religious actions.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Learning about religion. OpenStax CNX. Apr 18, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11780/1.1
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