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Evolution in action

Why does phylogeny matter?

In addition to enhancing our understanding of the evolutionary history of species, our own included, phylogenetic analysis has numerous practical applications. Two of those applications include understanding the evolution and transmission of disease and making decisions about conservation efforts. A 2010 study Harris, S.R. et al. 2010. Evolution of MRSA during hospital transmission and intercontinental spread. Science 327:469–474. of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ), an antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacterium, traced the origin and spread of the strain throughout the past 40 years. The study uncovered the timing and patterns in which the resistant strain moved from its point of origin in Europe to centers of infection and evolution in South America, Asia, North America, and Australasia. The study suggested that introductions of the bacteria to new populations occurred very few times, perhaps only once, and then spread from that limited number of individuals. This is in contrast to the possibility that many individuals had carried the bacteria from one place to another. This result suggests that public health officials should concentrate on quickly identifying the contacts of individuals infected with a new strain of bacteria to control its spread.

A second area of usefulness for phylogenetic analysis is in conservation. Biologists have argued that it is important to protect species throughout a phylogenetic tree rather than just those from one branch of the tree. Doing this will preserve more of the variation produced by evolution. For example, conservation efforts should focus on a single species without sister species rather than another species that has a cluster of close sister species that recently evolved. If the single evolutionarily distinct species goes extinct a disproportionate amount of variation from the tree will be lost compared to one species in the cluster of closely related species. A study published in 2007 Isaac NJ, Turvey ST, Collen B, Waterman C, Baillie JE (2007) Mammals on the EDGE: Conservation Priorities Based on Threat and Phylogeny. PLoS ONE 2(3): e296. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000296 made recommendations for conservation of mammal species worldwide based on how evolutionarily distinct and at risk of extinction they are. The study found that their recommendations differed from priorities based on simply the level of extinction threat to the species. The study recommended protecting some threatened and valued large mammals such as the orangutans, the giant and lesser pandas, and the African and Asian elephants. But they also found that some much lesser known species should be protected based on how evolutionary distinct they are. These include a number of rodents, bats, shrews and hedgehogs. In addition there are some critically endangered species that did not rate as very important in evolutionary distinctiveness including species of deer mice and gerbils. While many criteria affect conservation decisions, preserving phylogenetic diversity provides an objective way to protect the full range of diversity generated by evolution.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of biology_biol 101 dacc. OpenStax CNX. Jan 13, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11614/1.1
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