# 10.2 Density

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• Define density.
• Calculate the mass of a reservoir from its density.
• Compare and contrast the densities of various substances.

Which weighs more, a ton of feathers or a ton of bricks? This old riddle plays with the distinction between mass and density. A ton is a ton, of course; but bricks have much greater density than feathers, and so we are tempted to think of them as heavier. (See [link] .)

Density , as you will see, is an important characteristic of substances. It is crucial, for example, in determining whether an object sinks or floats in a fluid. Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance or object. In equation form, density is defined as

$\rho =\frac{m}{V},$

where the Greek letter $\rho$ (rho) is the symbol for density, $m$ is the mass, and $V$ is the volume occupied by the substance.

## Density

Density is mass per unit volume.

$\rho =\frac{m}{V},$

where $\rho$ is the symbol for density, $m$ is the mass, and $V$ is the volume occupied by the substance.

In the riddle regarding the feathers and bricks, the masses are the same, but the volume occupied by the feathers is much greater, since their density is much lower. The SI unit of density is ${\text{kg/m}}^{3}$ , representative values are given in [link] . The metric system was originally devised so that water would have a density of $1\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{g/cm}}^{3}$ , equivalent to ${\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{kg/m}}^{3}$ . Thus the basic mass unit, the kilogram, was first devised to be the mass of 1000 mL of water, which has a volume of 1000 cm 3 .

Densities of various substances
Substance $\rho \left({\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{kg/m}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{or}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{g/mL}\right)$ Substance $\rho \left({\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{kg/m}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{or}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{g/mL}\right)$ Substance $\rho \left({\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{kg/m}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{or}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{g/mL}\right)$
Solids Liquids Gases
Aluminum 2.7 Water (4ºC) 1.000 Air $1\text{.}\text{29}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$
Brass 8.44 Blood 1.05 Carbon dioxide $1\text{.}\text{98}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$
Copper (average) 8.8 Sea water 1.025 Carbon monoxide $1\text{.}\text{25}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$
Gold 19.32 Mercury 13.6 Hydrogen $0\text{.}\text{090}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$
Iron or steel 7.8 Ethyl alcohol 0.79 Helium $0\text{.}\text{18}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$
Lead 11.3 Petrol 0.68 Methane $0\text{.}\text{72}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$
Polystyrene 0.10 Glycerin 1.26 Nitrogen $1\text{.}\text{25}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$
Tungsten 19.30 Olive oil 0.92 Nitrous oxide $1\text{.}\text{98}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$
Uranium 18.70 Oxygen $1\text{.}\text{43}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$
Concrete 2.30–3.0 Steam $\left(\text{100º C}\right)$ $0\text{.}\text{60}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$
Cork 0.24
Glass, common (average) 2.6
Granite 2.7
Earth’s crust 3.3
Wood 0.3–0.9
Ice (0°C) 0.917
Bone 1.7–2.0

As you can see by examining [link] , the density of an object may help identify its composition. The density of gold, for example, is about 2.5 times the density of iron, which is about 2.5 times the density of aluminum. Density also reveals something about the phase of the matter and its substructure. Notice that the densities of liquids and solids are roughly comparable, consistent with the fact that their atoms are in close contact. The densities of gases are much less than those of liquids and solids, because the atoms in gases are separated by large amounts of empty space.

## Take-home experiment sugar and salt

A pile of sugar and a pile of salt look pretty similar, but which weighs more? If the volumes of both piles are the same, any difference in mass is due to their different densities (including the air space between crystals). Which do you think has the greater density? What values did you find? What method did you use to determine these values?

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
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how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
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what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
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s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
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is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
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Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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how to fabricate graphene ink ?
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What is lattice structure?
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Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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4
Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!