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Each copy of a homologous pair of chromosomes originates from a different parent; therefore, the genes themselves are not identical. The variation of individuals within a species is due to the specific combination of the genes inherited from both parents. Even a slightly altered sequence of nucleotides within a gene can result in an alternative trait. For example, there are three possible gene sequences on the human chromosome that code for blood type: sequence A, sequence B, and sequence O. Because all diploid human cells have two copies of the chromosome that determines blood type, the blood type (the trait) is determined by which two versions of the marker gene are inherited. It is possible to have two copies of the same gene sequence on both homologous chromosomes, with one on each (for example, AA, BB, or OO), or two different sequences, such as AB.

Minor variations of traits, such as blood type, eye color, and handedness, contribute to the natural variation found within a species. However, if the entire DNA sequence from any pair of human homologous chromosomes is compared, the difference is less than one percent. The sex chromosomes, X and Y, are the single exception to the rule of homologous chromosome uniformity: Other than a small amount of homology that is necessary to accurately produce gametes, the genes found on the X and Y chromosomes are different.

Eukaryotic chromosomal structure and compaction

If the DNA from all 46 chromosomes in a human cell nucleus was laid out end to end, it would measure approximately two meters; however, its diameter would be only 2 nm. Considering that the size of a typical human cell is about 10 µm (100,000 cells lined up to equal one meter), DNA must be tightly packaged to fit in the cell’s nucleus. At the same time, it must also be readily accessible for the genes to be expressed. During some stages of the cell cycle, the long strands of DNA are condensed into compact chromosomes. There are a number of ways that chromosomes are compacted.

In the first level of compaction, short stretches of the DNA double helix wrap around a core of eight histone proteins at regular intervals along the entire length of the chromosome ( [link] ). The DNA-histone complex is called chromatin. The beadlike, histone DNA complex is called a nucleosome    , and DNA connecting the nucleosomes is called linker DNA. A DNA molecule in this form is about seven times shorter than the double helix without the histones, and the beads are about 10 nm in diameter, in contrast with the 2-nm diameter of a DNA double helix. The next level of compaction occurs as the nucleosomes and the linker DNA between them are coiled into a 30-nm chromatin fiber. This coiling further shortens the chromosome so that it is now about 50 times shorter than the extended form. In the third level of packing, a variety of fibrous proteins is used to pack the chromatin. These fibrous proteins also ensure that each chromosome in a non-dividing cell occupies a particular area of the nucleus that does not overlap with that of any other chromosome (see the top image in [link] ).

There are five levels of chromosome organization. From top to bottom: The top panel shows a DNA double helix. The second panel shows the double helix wrapped around proteins called histones. The middle panel shows the entire DNA molecule wrapping around many histones, creating the appearance of beads on a string. The fourth panel shows that the chromatin fiber further condenses into the chromosome shown in the bottom panel.
Double-stranded DNA wraps around histone proteins to form nucleosomes that have the appearance of “beads on a string.” The nucleosomes are coiled into a 30-nm chromatin fiber. When a cell undergoes mitosis, the chromosomes condense even further.

DNA replicates in the S phase of interphase. After replication, the chromosomes are composed of two linked sister chromatids . When fully compact, the pairs of identically packed chromosomes are bound to each other by cohesin proteins. The connection between the sister chromatids is closest in a region called the centromere    . The conjoined sister chromatids, with a diameter of about 1 µm, are visible under a light microscope. The centromeric region is highly condensed and thus will appear as a constricted area.

This animation illustrates the different levels of chromosome packing.

Section summary

Prokaryotes have a single circular chromosome composed of double-stranded DNA, whereas eukaryotes have multiple, linear chromosomes composed of chromatin surrounded by a nuclear membrane. The 46 chromosomes of human somatic cells are composed of 22 pairs of autosomes (matched pairs) and a pair of sex chromosomes, which may or may not be matched. This is the 2 n or diploid state. Human gametes have 23 chromosomes or one complete set of chromosomes; a set of chromosomes is complete with either one of the sex chromosomes. This is the n or haploid state. Genes are segments of DNA that code for a specific protein. An organism’s traits are determined by the genes inherited from each parent. Duplicated chromosomes are composed of two sister chromatids. Chromosomes are compacted using a variety of mechanisms during certain stages of the cell cycle. Several classes of protein are involved in the organization and packing of the chromosomal DNA into a highly condensed structure. The condensing complex compacts chromosomes, and the resulting condensed structure is necessary for chromosomal segregation during mitosis.

Questions & Answers

state any one specialized animal cell and it's function
Pascal Reply
sperm cell: Fertilization
Can DNA and RNA be praticalized
Oyewale Reply
you can make models of them and show how they replicate
what is dentition
Tisa Reply
Study of teeths and their functions
what are the function
it's not teeths. teeth is plural as well as singular noun. the function of the teeth is to cut and grind food for easier swallowing and for increasing the surface area if the fish as the substrate in which digestive enzymes work
dentition is not the study of teeth but the arrangement of teeth in the mouth of species or individuals
what are the two types of teeth
Function of probosis
Adeola Reply
why do we study biology?
where biology began
What are chromesome
Talkmore Reply
condensed DNA wrapped with histone
what is chromosome?
Royd Reply
How can a person who has been in the vascular disease repairs his or her DNA
Rabson Reply
i need its explanation sir..pls provid na...🙁
Shaf Reply
Of wat
explanation for wat
Of war na so dat I can provide
Is d process which food is converted into substance dat can be utilize by d body
the meaning of disgestion
Charity Reply
because they are considered to be proteins ..lipids,fats, and nucleic acids
Geeta Reply
what is osmosis
Festus Reply
Is the movement of solvent molecules from the region of a higher concentration to the region of lower concentration
It is the movement of solvent from the region of lower concentration to the region of higher concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.
and diffusion
it is the movement of water molecules fro region of higher conc. to the region of lower conc.thro a semi-permeable membrane.
Diffusion is the movement of solute molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
osmosis is the movement of water molecule from the region higher water potential to a region of lower water potential
what is the function of Nerve cell?
Hello Everyone!! Any good study app recommendations?
For which subject
Hello everyone!! I want to be sure does exoskeleton consist of endoskeleton? plz help right nw
Try this one and also biology Olevels
Hey, I'm completely new to biology. I'm computer science graduate but I want to learn Neuroscience from scratch. So I have decided to study this book as my entry point to the field. is this book good for a complete beginner in the field?
Adeetya Reply
Yes it can help since u ar a beginner
Thanks for the clarification.
WhAt are the differences between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell
oluwapelumi Reply
Prokaryotic cell is a single celled organism that do not have membrane -bound nuclei.
prokaryotes also lack other cell organelles whereas eukaryotes possess an organized nucleus with nuclear envelope and also they have complex locomotory and cytoskeletal structures
genetic material is found in cytoplasm in prokaryotic cell while in eukaryotes genetic material is found in nucleus
What cells are the basic unit of life?

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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