# 10.1 Balancing oxidation-reduction reactions

 Page 1 / 12
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
• Define electrochemistry and a number of important associated terms
• Split oxidation-reduction reactions into their oxidation half-reactions and reduction half-reactions
• Produce balanced oxidation-reduction equations for reactions in acidic or basic solution
• Identify oxidizing agents and reducing agents

Electricity refers to a number of phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge. Electricity includes such diverse things as lightning, static electricity, the current generated by a battery as it discharges, and many other influences on our daily lives. The flow or movement of charge is an electric current ( [link] ). Electrons or ions may carry the charge. The elementary unit of charge is the charge of a proton, which is equal in magnitude to the charge of an electron. The SI unit of charge is the coulomb (C) and the charge of a proton is 1.602 $×$ 10 −19 C. The presence of an electric charge generates an electric field. Electric current    is the rate of flow of charge. The SI unit for electrical current is the SI base unit called the ampere (A), which is a flow rate of 1 coulomb of charge per second (1 A = 1 C/s). An electric current flows in a path, called an electric circuit    . In most chemical systems, it is necessary to maintain a closed path for current to flow. The flow of charge is generated by an electrical potential difference, or potential, between two points in the circuit. Electrical potential is the ability of the electric field to do work on the charge. The SI unit of electrical potential is the volt (V). When 1 coulomb of charge moves through a potential difference of 1 volt, it gains or loses 1 joule (J) of energy. [link] summarizes some of this information about electricity.

Common Electrical Terms
Quantity Definition Measure or Unit
Electric charge Charge on a proton 1.602 $×$ 10 −19 C
Electric current The movement of charge ampere = A = 1 C/s
Electric potential The force trying to move the charge volt = V = J/C
Electric field The force acting upon other charges in the vicinity

Electrochemistry studies oxidation-reduction reactions, which were first discussed in an earlier chapter, where we learned that oxidation was the loss of electrons and reduction was the gain of electrons. The reactions discussed tended to be rather simple, and conservation of mass (atom counting by type) and deriving a correctly balanced chemical equation were relatively simple. In this section, we will concentrate on the half-reaction method for balancing oxidation-reduction reactions. The use of half-reactions is important partly for balancing more complicated reactions and partly because many aspects of electrochemistry are easier to discuss in terms of half-reactions. There are alternate methods of balancing these reactions; however, there are no good alternatives to half-reactions for discussing what is occurring in many systems. The half-reaction method    splits oxidation-reduction reactions into their oxidation “half” and reduction “half” to make finding the overall equation easier.

how can chip be made from sand
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how do you find theWhat are the wavelengths and energies per photon of two lines
The eyes of some reptiles are sensitive to 850 nm light. If the minimum energy to trigger the receptor at this wavelength is 3.15 x 10-14 J, what is the minimum number of 850 nm photons that must hit the receptor in order for it to be triggered?
A teaspoon of the carbohydrate sucrose contains 16 calories, what is the mass of one teaspoo of sucrose if the average number of calories for carbohydrate is 4.1 calories/g?
4. On the basis of dipole moments and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a qualitative way the differences in the boiling points of acetone (56.2 °C) and 1-propanol (97.4 °C), which have similar molar masses
Calculate the bond order for an ion with this configuration: (?2s)2(??2s)2(?2px)2(?2py,?2pz)4(??2py,??2pz)3
Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water? (a) addition of NaOH (b) addition of HCl (c) addition of NaF