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Template matching

Template matching involves comparing regions of an image to a template, using correlation algorithms to detect regions that are similar.  Correlation is similar to convolution but without flipping one of the signals.  For use in image processing, we must normalize the signals to account for variations of intensity in the image matrices, one for each color matrix (red, green, and blue).  Using the MATLAB function normxcorr2 , we are able to take a normalized 2-D cross-correlation of two images, with the regions most similar to the template in the picture returning the highest correlation values.

Examining a cross-correlation formula we see the similarity to convolution except neither image is flipped:

equation for cross convolution

In order to expand to two dimensions and normalize the correlation, we must use linear algebra. Since MATLAB allows us to convert images to 2-D matrices, three for a color image (the RGB values at each x,y coordinate pair), we can run a similar formula but use vectors instead of points. The normalization factor on the bottom scales the values so they do not vary based on the high intensities of individual colors in parts of the image. Without this correction, a bright sky would always have high correlation with the image just because it is bright.

equation for matlab normxcorr

Thus, using a stop sign template we can attempt to match it with an image and extract the location of highest correlation. At this point, we can either check it against a threshold value to determine if it matches, or do further analysis on regions of the image.

Edge detection

Edge detection involves analyzing changes in intensity to determine the edges in an image, and then further analysis can be performed on certain bounded regions of the image. Given an colored image, MATLAB has the capability to convert it to a 2-D grayscale image using rgb2gray . Then, we can capitalize on the changes in intensity to detect edges. The MATLAB algorithm we chose to accomplish this is the Sobel method, which approximated the gradient of the image using a convolution with the following matrices.

equation for the edge detection algorithm

The regions with the highest changes in intensity are the most likely to be edges in an image. Given the probable edges, we can use the function bwareaopen to remove any bounded regions that are too small to be of use in our image processing. Left with only large boundaries, we can now test each one for various features such as color, shape, area, etc. to determine if it is a street sign.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Elec 301 projects fall 2011. OpenStax CNX. Jun 18, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11431/1.1
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