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Natural sciences

Ecosystems and the environmental balance

Educator section

Memorandum

5. Antelopes: moderate grassland; subtropical grass and thorny bushes; bushveld

proteas: fynbos

ferns and mosses: moderate forests

grasshoppers: semi-desert; moderate grassland; bushveld

karoo bushes: semi-desert; dry semi-desert

lions: bushveld; sub-tropical lowveld

succulents: desert; semi-desert

Leaner section

Content

Activity: to understand the concepts “biomes” and “symbioses” [lo 1.1]

1. BIOMES

Within the biosphere the climate differs from place to place, and there are many natural regions, each with its own characteristic plant and animal species, as illustrated in the map above. The natural regions are called biomes. (You will learn more about it later).

A continuous interaction takes place between the living and non-living organisms in each biome.

In which region(s) would one find plenty of?

Buck_________________________________________________________________

proteas _______________________________________________________________

ferns and mosses_______________________________________________________

locusts _______________________________________________________________

karoo bushes__________________________________________________________

lions_________________________________________________________________

succulents____________________________________________________________

What an animal eats, determines where it lives! Antelope that feed on the leaves and young offshoots of trees, will not be found in places where the vegetation is mainly bushes and shrubs. One will not find leopards and lions where there are no antelope.

(a) What an animal eats, determines where it lives

Some birds cannot stay in one habitat all year round, because trees shed their leaves because of weather patterns. One such species is the swallow. To overcome this problem, swallows therefore migrate to countries where it is summer and return again after winter.

Assignment 13

Write a short paragraph on the migration of the swallow. Indicate whether it is an annual occurrence, and also how the migration takes place and what problems the birds experience during their migration.

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The diet of an Eskimo living near the North Pole mainly consists of seal-meat, fish and birds. All these sources are dependent on small plants which grow in the sea. But how is this possible?

Seals and birds feed on fish. The fish eat smaller fish. Little fish feed on shrimp, whilst the shrimp feed on microscopic plants called diatoms, which live on the surface of the sea. These plants produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis.

Complete the long chain of who eats whom:

Ecologists call the transfer of food energy from a source to numerous organisms feeding successively on each other, a food chain.

(b) Symbiosis

The symbiosis relates to the cohabiting of plants and animals to the advantage of one another. The story of mangroves and crabs is probably one of the nicest stories of symbiosis between plants and animals. Mangroves especially grow in the salty water where rivers discharge into the ocean. The soil there is very poor, muddy, without air and salty. Fortunately there are also crabs that live in the muddy estuaries. One such crab, the mangrove crab, survives on dead leaves which they store in tunnels. These crabs make holes and tunnels in the mud and manufacture humus of good quality from the decomposed leaves. There is, however, one problem that they had to overcome, and that is the fact that the trees only shed their leaves in autumn. During the other seasons there weren’t leaves for the crabs to use. The mangroves therefore changed their leaf shedding habits. They don’t shed all their leaves at the same time, but throughout the year. In this way they live together to the advantage of one another.

Assignment 14

Do research on any other interesting form of symbiosis between animal and plant. Write a short report (one folio) or make a sketch that depicts symbiosis.

CRITERIA 1 2 3 4 5
Indication of two organisms ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Reasons for symbiosis ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Language / captions with sketch ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Neatness and layout ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Element of interest ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Consider another food chain more familiar to us.

In a field green plants are eaten by meadow mice, which in turn fall prey to hawks.

The hawk is a secondary consumer.
The mouse is a primary consumer, because it is the first to eat the plants.
The green plants are the producers.

The concept of producer and consumer is very helpful in nature because it reminds us that food is not manufactured in canneries or frozen-food factories out there.

Assessment

Learning Outcome 1: The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

Assessment Standard 1.1: We know this when the learner plans investigations.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11079/1.1
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