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Natuurwetenskappe

Ekosisteem en omgewingsbalans

Opvoeders afdeling

Memorandum

5. Bokke: matige grasveld; subtropiese gras en doringbosse; bosveld proteas; fynbos. varings en mosse: matige woude

sprinkane: halfwoestyn; matige grasveld; bosveld

karoobossies: halfwoestyn; droë semi-woestyn

leeus: bosveld; sub-tropiese laeveld

vetplante: woestyn; semi-woestyn

Leerder afdeling

Inhoud

Aktiwiteit: om die begrippe “biome” en “simbiose” te verstaan [lu 1.1]

1. BIOME

Die klimaat verskil van plek tot plek binne die biosfeer en daar is baie natuurlike streke, elk met sy eie plant- en dierespesies, soos in die bostaande kaart geïllustreer. Die natuurlike streke word biome genoem.

'n Voortdurende interaksie vind plaas tussen die lewende en nie-lewende organismes in elke bioom.

In watter streek (streke) sou jy baie van die volgende aantref?

Bokke________________________________________________________________

proteas _______________________________________________________________

varings en mosse_______________________________________________________

springkane____________________________________________________________

karoobossies__________________________________________________________

leeus_________________________________________________________________

vetplante____________________________________________________________

Wat 'n dier eet, bepaal waar hy woon! Bokke wat die blare en jong lote van bome eet, sal nie in veld wat hoofsaaklik uit bosse en struike bestaan, gevind word nie. Luiperds en leeus word nie gevind waar daar nie bokke is nie.

(a) Wat ‘n dier eet, bepaal waar hy woon

Sommige voëls kan egter nie heeljaar op een plek bly nie, aangesien weersomstandighede sekere tye van die jaar veroorsaak dat daar nie meer blare aan die bome is nie. Een so ‘n voëlsoort is die swaeltjie. Ten einde hierdie probleem te oorkom, migreer (trek) die swaeltjies elke jaar na warmer dele en kom weer terug as die winter verby is.

Opdrag 13

Skryf ‘n kort paragraaf oor die migrasie van die swaeltjie en dui aan of dit ‘n jaarlikse instelling is, asook hoe die trek geskied en watter probleme die voëls tydens die trek ondervind.

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Die dieet van 'n Eskimo wat in die Noordpool woon, bestaan grotendeels uit robvleis, vis en voëls. Al hierdie bronne is afhanklik van klein plantjies wat in die see groei. Maar hoe is dit moontlik?

Robbe en voëls lewe van vis. Die groter visse eet die kleiner visse. Die kleiner visse lewe van garnale wat weer op hulle beurt lewe van baie klein mikroskopiese plante, bekend as diatome, wat op die oppervlakte van die see groei. Hierdie plante vervaardig hulle eie voedsel deur 'n proses wat bekend staan as fotosintese.

Wie eet vir wie? Voltooi die volgende voedselketting:

Ekoloë noem die suksesvolle oordrag van voedselenergie vanaf 'n bron, deur verskeie organismes wat op mekaar teer, 'n voedselketting.

(b) Simbiose

Die woord simbiose dui op die saamleef van plante en diere tot voordeel van mekaar. Die storie van wortelbome en krappe is seker een van die mooiste stories van simbiose by plante en diere. Wortelbome groei veral in die souterige water waar riviere in die see uitmond. Die grond daar is baie sleg, modderig, sonder lug en sout. Gelukkig is daar krappe wat ook in die modderige riviermonde bly. Een soort krap, die mangrovekrap, leef van dooie blare wat hulle in tonnels indra. Hierdie krappe maak die lewe van die wortelbome heelwat makliker. Hulle maak gate en tonnels in die modder en maak goeie humus van dooie blare. Daar is egter een probleem wat hulle moes oorkom, en dit is die feit dat bome slegs in die herfs hul blare afgooi. Gedurende die ander seisoene was daar dus nie blare vir die krappe om te gebruik nie. Die wortelbome het dus hulle blaarafgooiery verander. Hulle gooi nie al hul blare gelyktydig in die herfs af nie, maar dwarsdeur die jaar. So leef hulle saam tot voordeel van mekaar.

Opdrag 14

Doen navorsing oor enige ander interessante vorm van simbiose tussen plant en dier of tussen dier en dier. Skryf ‘n kort verslag (1 folio) of maak ‘n skets wat die simbiose uitbeeld.

KRITERIA 1 2 3 4 5
Aanduiding van twee organismes ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Redes vir die simbiose ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Taalgebruik / byskrifte by sketse ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Netheid en uiteensetting ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Interessantheid ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Oorweeg 'n ander voedselketting waarmee jy meer bekend is.

Muise eet die groen plante in die veld, terwyl hulle weer die prooi is van valke.

Die valk is 'n sekondêre verbruiker .
Die muis is 'n primêre verbruiker , want dit is die eerste om die plante te vreet.
Die groen plante is die produseerders .

Die konsep van produseerder en verbruiker is belangrik in die natuur en herinner ons dat kos nie net in fabrieke vervaardig word nie.

Assessering

Leeruitkomste 1: Die leerder is in staat om met selfvertroue op weetgierigheid oor natuurlike verskynsels te reageer, en om binne die konteks van wetenskap, tegnologie en die omgewing verbande te ondersoek en probleme op te los.

Assesseringstandaard 1.1: Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder ondersoeke beplan.

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Source:  OpenStax, Natuurwetenskappe graad 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11080/1.1
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