# 1.9 Heat and temperature

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## Heat and temperature

Heat is a type of energy – the energy of the movement of particles. Temperature is the measure of how fast the molecules are moving

How do we measure temperature?

We use a thermometer that consists of a glass tube filled with a liquid such as mercury, which expands when it is warmed.

What is absolute zero ?

The lowest temperature possible, at which it becomes impossible for molecules or atoms to move. This occurs at –273,15 ºC or at 0 on the Kelvin scale. This low temperature was measured in a Finnish laboratory.

Find out what the Kelvin scale is.

You probably know that temperature can be measured on a Celsius scale or on a Fahrenheit scale. Temperatures used to be measured in Fahrenheit, so you may still find appliances that are marked in Fahrenheit, but most appliances nowadays use the Celsius scale.

How do you convert Fahrenheit to Celsius?

Subtract 32 and then divide by 9 and multiply by 5

F to C therefore is (-32 ÷ 9 x 5)

For Celsius to Fahrenheit it is:

÷ 5 x 9 + 32

## To understand temperature conversions [lo 2.4]

Assignment 1:

Do you know the following?

1. The highest temperature ever recorded on earth is 720 million ºF. It was recorded during nuclear fusion, in the USA.

What would this be in ºC?

2. The highest air temperature has been measured in Libya, at 58 ºC.

What is this in ºF?

3. The lowest air temperature was recorded in Antarctica when the thernometer registered –190 ºF.

What is this in ºC?

Try: www.convert-me.com

Assessment of Temperature Conversions

Were you able to do the conversions?

[LO 2.4]

Heat Transfer

## To determine terms and concepts involved with the transfer of heat [lo 2.1, lo 2.3, lo 2.4]

Assignment 1:

Complete:

There are different terms for describing the transfer of heat:

• CONVECTION
• CONDUCTION

Assessment of Terms

Were you able to identify the terms?

[LO 2.4]

Heat and Water

Water has a remarkable capacity for retaining heat.

Much energy is needed for the temperature of water to increase or decrease by 1 ºC.

Various factors influence heat retention by water:

• Water is a liquid.
• Water is transparent and light beams can penetrate to a depth of 20 m.
• A mass of water has waves and currents and vertical movement that can distribute heat.

If you compare the heat retention capacity of the land and the oceans, you will realise that there is a considerable difference.

Capacity for heat

We know that heat causes changes in temperature and that a unit of heat is measured in Joule as it is a type of energy.

Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat that is transferred (required or released) when the temperature of a substance changes by 1 ºC or 1 K.

Water is the most expensive substance to heat because great amounts of heat are required to raise the temperature of water by a few degrees. Water, on the other hand, also provides large amounts of heat when it cools down.

The effect of this is most marked in the oceans, as they are large masses of water. They are warmed very slowly, but also retain the heat for a long time.

#### Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
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