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Summary: This is the concluding part 8 of 50 years journey.

The Journey of I.C.Technology from micro (1959) to nano (2009) era.-Part 8.

Title: Part 8 and the concluding part of 50 years journey.

Keywords: High K- Metal Gate(HK-MG), Atomic layer deposition, Fermi-Level Pinning(FLP),Strained Silicon,SiGe:C HBT,

Summary: This is the concluding part 8 of 50 years journey.

IV.1.6. High-k solution for ULSI CMOS.[The high-k solution by Mark T. Bohr, Robert S. Chau, Tahir Ghani&Kaizad Mistry, IEEE Spectrum , October 2007, pp 23-29]

As the level of integration evolved, size of CMOS halved every 24 months. At this rate of scaling, by 1998 SiO 2 gate insulation became 5 atomic layer thick with total thickness scaled to 13Aº each atomic layer being 2.6Aº. Current leakage and heating became a serious problem. Because of wave nature of electron and its quantum mechanical tunneling property, thin gate oxides allow the electrons accumulated on gate to leak to the channel. To overcome this problem we need physically thick gate oxides to prevent quantum mechanical tunneling but at the same time electrically thin so that channel is turned at low threshold. If dielectric constant is doubled then thickness can be doubled without any reduction in Turn-ON capability since C=kε 0 A/d

where k=dielectric constant or relative permittivity of the gate insulator

d=thickness of the gate insulator and A= cross-sectional area of the gate insulator.

Metal interconnects are preferred over low-k material so that propagation delay is minimized.

Low k will give higher velocity of propagation thereby minimizing the propagation delay.

MOS capacitance had to be reproducible, its behavior should be repeatable. To achieve this reproducibility and repeatability, Reactive Sputtering or Metal Organic CVD had to be abandoned in favour of Atomic Layer Deposition (Appendix III). This gave the necessary smoothness to the surface of the electrode as well as precise control over the thickness of the Gate Insulator. This ensured reproducibility and repeatability.

Several dielectrics were studied such as Al 2 O 2 , TiO 2 , Ti 2 O 2 , Ti 2 O 5 , HfO 2 , HfSiO 4 , ZrO 2 , ZrSiO 2 , La 2 O 3 .

With scaling due to Fermi-Level pinning (AppendixIV), higher threshold Voltage (V Thres ) resulted. Also High-k material have high elasticity hence result in higher phonon scattering or lattice scattering resulting in lower channel mobility. By screening the phonon effect, the deterioration in channel conductivity ould be prevented. This required by increasing the electron density in Poly-Si gate. Hence we had to switch to Metal-High k combination. This prevented:

  1. Fermi-Level pinning hence threshold voltage normalized;
  2. This normalized channel conductivity which had drastically deteriorated due to dipole vibration effect;
  3. Metal Gate Electrode provides better bonding between Metal-Dielectric. Hence table operation.

In mid-2003, Intel’s Hillsbaro, Ore, Development Fab developed HK-MG CMOS. Intel’s 130nm

technology was used. Using Hafnium-Based Oxide and Metal Gate electrode following characteristics were achieved:

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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