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Summary: This is the concluding part 8 of 50 years journey.

The Journey of I.C.Technology from micro (1959) to nano (2009) era.-Part 8.

Title: Part 8 and the concluding part of 50 years journey.

Keywords: High K- Metal Gate(HK-MG), Atomic layer deposition, Fermi-Level Pinning(FLP),Strained Silicon,SiGe:C HBT,

Summary: This is the concluding part 8 of 50 years journey.

IV.1.6. High-k solution for ULSI CMOS.[The high-k solution by Mark T. Bohr, Robert S. Chau, Tahir Ghani&Kaizad Mistry, IEEE Spectrum , October 2007, pp 23-29]

As the level of integration evolved, size of CMOS halved every 24 months. At this rate of scaling, by 1998 SiO 2 gate insulation became 5 atomic layer thick with total thickness scaled to 13Aº each atomic layer being 2.6Aº. Current leakage and heating became a serious problem. Because of wave nature of electron and its quantum mechanical tunneling property, thin gate oxides allow the electrons accumulated on gate to leak to the channel. To overcome this problem we need physically thick gate oxides to prevent quantum mechanical tunneling but at the same time electrically thin so that channel is turned at low threshold. If dielectric constant is doubled then thickness can be doubled without any reduction in Turn-ON capability since C=kε 0 A/d

where k=dielectric constant or relative permittivity of the gate insulator

d=thickness of the gate insulator and A= cross-sectional area of the gate insulator.

Metal interconnects are preferred over low-k material so that propagation delay is minimized.

Low k will give higher velocity of propagation thereby minimizing the propagation delay.

MOS capacitance had to be reproducible, its behavior should be repeatable. To achieve this reproducibility and repeatability, Reactive Sputtering or Metal Organic CVD had to be abandoned in favour of Atomic Layer Deposition (Appendix III). This gave the necessary smoothness to the surface of the electrode as well as precise control over the thickness of the Gate Insulator. This ensured reproducibility and repeatability.

Several dielectrics were studied such as Al 2 O 2 , TiO 2 , Ti 2 O 2 , Ti 2 O 5 , HfO 2 , HfSiO 4 , ZrO 2 , ZrSiO 2 , La 2 O 3 .

With scaling due to Fermi-Level pinning (AppendixIV), higher threshold Voltage (V Thres ) resulted. Also High-k material have high elasticity hence result in higher phonon scattering or lattice scattering resulting in lower channel mobility. By screening the phonon effect, the deterioration in channel conductivity ould be prevented. This required by increasing the electron density in Poly-Si gate. Hence we had to switch to Metal-High k combination. This prevented:

  1. Fermi-Level pinning hence threshold voltage normalized;
  2. This normalized channel conductivity which had drastically deteriorated due to dipole vibration effect;
  3. Metal Gate Electrode provides better bonding between Metal-Dielectric. Hence table operation.

In mid-2003, Intel’s Hillsbaro, Ore, Development Fab developed HK-MG CMOS. Intel’s 130nm

technology was used. Using Hafnium-Based Oxide and Metal Gate electrode following characteristics were achieved:

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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