# 1.7 Machine learning lecture 8

MachineLearning-Lecture08

Instructor (Andrew Ng) :Okay. Good morning. Welcome back. If you haven’t given me the homework yet, you can just give it to me at the end of class. That’s fine. Let’s see. And also just a quick reminder – I’ve actually seen project proposals start to trickle in already, which is great. As a reminder, project proposals are due this Friday, and if any of you want to meet and chat more about project ideas, I also have office hours immediately after lecture today. Are there any questions about any of that before I get started today? Great.

Okay. Welcome back. What I want to do today is wrap up our discussion on support vector machines and in particular we’ll also talk about the idea of kernels and then talk about [inaudible] and then I’ll talk about the SMO algorithm, which is an algorithm for solving the optimization problem that we posed last time.

To recap, we wrote down the following context optimization problem. All this is assuming that the data is linearly separable, which is an assumption that I’ll fix later, and so with this optimization problem, given a training set, this will find the optimal margin classifier for the data set that maximizes this geometric margin from your training examples.

And so in the previous lecture, we also derived the dual of this problem, which was to maximize this. And this is the dual of our primal [inaudible] optimization problem. Here, I’m using these angle brackets to denote inner product, so this is just XI transpose XJ for vectors XI and XJ. We also worked out the ways W would be given by sum over I alpha I YI XI.

Therefore, when you need to make a prediction of classification time, you need to compute the value of the hypothesis applied to an [inaudible], which is G of W transpose X plus B where G is that threshold function that outputs plus one and minus one. And so this is G of sum over I alpha I. So that can also be written in terms of inner products between input vectors X.

So what I want to do is now talk about the idea of kernels, which will make use of this property because it turns out you can take the only dependers of the algorithm on X is through these inner products. In fact, you can write the entire algorithm without ever explicitly referring to an X vector [inaudible] between input feature vectors. And the idea of a high kernel is as following – let’s say that you have an input attribute. Let’s just say for now it’s a real number. Maybe this is the living area of a house that you’re trying to make a prediction on, like whether it will be sold in the next six months.

Quite often, we’ll take this feature X and we’ll map it to a richer set of features. So for example, we will take X and map it to these four polynomial features, and let me acutely call this mapping Phi. So we’ll let Phi of X denote the mapping from your original features to some higher dimensional set of features.

So if you do this and you want to use the features Phi of X, then all you need to do is go back to the learning algorithm and everywhere you see XI, XJ, we’ll replace it with the inner product between Phi of XI and Phi of XJ. So this corresponds to running a support vector machine with the features given by Phi of X rather than with your original one-dimensional input feature X.

what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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