# 1.6 Fission  (Page 3/14)

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The reason ${}^{\text{235}}\text{U}$ and ${}^{\text{239}}\text{Pu}$ are easier to fission than ${}^{\text{238}}\text{U}$ is that the nuclear force is more attractive for an even number of neutrons in a nucleus than for an odd number. Consider that ${}_{\text{92}}^{\text{235}}{\text{U}}_{\text{143}}$ has 143 neutrons, and ${}_{\text{94}}^{\text{239}}{\text{P}}_{\text{145}}$ has 145 neutrons, whereas ${}_{\text{92}}^{\text{238}}{\text{U}}_{\text{146}}$ has 146. When a neutron encounters a nucleus with an odd number of neutrons, the nuclear force is more attractive, because the additional neutron will make the number even. About 2-MeV more energy is deposited in the resulting nucleus than would be the case if the number of neutrons was already even. This extra energy produces greater deformation, making fission more likely. Thus, ${}^{\text{235}}\text{U}$ and ${}^{\text{239}}\text{Pu}$ are superior fission fuels. The isotope ${}^{\text{235}}\text{U}$ is only 0.72 % of natural uranium, while ${}^{\text{238}}\text{U}$ is 99.27%, and ${}^{\text{239}}\text{Pu}$ does not exist in nature. Australia has the largest deposits of uranium in the world, standing at 28% of the total. This is followed by Kazakhstan and Canada. The US has only 3% of global reserves.

Most fission reactors utilize ${}^{\text{235}}\text{U}$ , which is separated from ${}^{\text{238}}\text{U}$ at some expense. This is called enrichment. The most common separation method is gaseous diffusion of uranium hexafluoride ( ${\text{UF}}_{6}$ ) through membranes. Since ${}^{\text{235}}\text{U}$ has less mass than ${}^{\text{238}}\text{U}$ , its ${\text{UF}}_{6}$ molecules have higher average velocity at the same temperature and diffuse faster. Another interesting characteristic of ${}^{\text{235}}\text{U}$ is that it preferentially absorbs very slow moving neutrons (with energies a fraction of an eV), whereas fission reactions produce fast neutrons with energies in the order of an MeV. To make a self-sustained fission reactor with ${}^{\text{235}}\text{U}$ , it is thus necessary to slow down (“thermalize”) the neutrons. Water is very effective, since neutrons collide with protons in water molecules and lose energy. [link] shows a schematic of a reactor design, called the pressurized water reactor.

Control rods containing nuclides that very strongly absorb neutrons are used to adjust neutron flux. To produce large power, reactors contain hundreds to thousands of critical masses, and the chain reaction easily becomes self-sustaining, a condition called criticality    . Neutron flux should be carefully regulated to avoid an exponential increase in fissions, a condition called supercriticality    . Control rods help prevent overheating, perhaps even a meltdown or explosive disassembly. The water that is used to thermalize neutrons, necessary to get them to induce fission in ${}^{\text{235}}\text{U}$ , and achieve criticality, provides a negative feedback for temperature increases. In case the reactor overheats and boils the water to steam or is breached, the absence of water kills the chain reaction. Considerable heat, however, can still be generated by the reactor’s radioactive fission products. Other safety features, thus, need to be incorporated in the event of a loss of coolant accident, including auxiliary cooling water and pumps.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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