# 1.6 Fission  (Page 2/14)

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Spontaneous fission can occur, but this is usually not the most common decay mode for a given nuclide. For example, ${}^{\text{238}}\text{U}$ can spontaneously fission, but it decays mostly by $\alpha$ emission. Neutron-induced fission is crucial as seen in [link] . Being chargeless, even low-energy neutrons can strike a nucleus and be absorbed once they feel the attractive nuclear force. Large nuclei are described by a liquid drop model    with surface tension and oscillation modes, because the large number of nucleons act like atoms in a drop. The neutron is attracted and thus, deposits energy, causing the nucleus to deform as a liquid drop. If stretched enough, the nucleus narrows in the middle. The number of nucleons in contact and the strength of the nuclear force binding the nucleus together are reduced. Coulomb repulsion between the two ends then succeeds in fissioning the nucleus, which pops like a water drop into two large pieces and a few neutrons. Neutron-induced fission can be written as

$n+{\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}}^{A}\text{X}\to {\text{FF}}_{1}+{\text{FF}}_{2}+\text{xn},$

where ${\text{FF}}_{1}$ and ${\text{FF}}_{2}$ are the two daughter nuclei, called fission fragments    , and $x$ is the number of neutrons produced. Most often, the masses of the fission fragments are not the same. Most of the released energy goes into the kinetic energy of the fission fragments, with the remainder going into the neutrons and excited states of the fragments. Since neutrons can induce fission, a self-sustaining chain reaction is possible, provided more than one neutron is produced on average — that is, if $x>1$ in $n+{}^{A}\text{X}\to {\text{FF}}_{1}+{\text{FF}}_{2}+\text{xn}$ . This can also be seen in [link] .

An example of a typical neutron-induced fission reaction is

$n+{}_{\text{92}}^{\text{235}}\text{U}\to {}_{\text{56}}^{\text{142}}\text{Ba}+{}_{\text{36}}^{\text{91}}\text{Kr}+3\mathrm{n.}$

Note that in this equation, the total charge remains the same (is conserved): $\text{92}+0=\text{56}+\text{36}$ . Also, as far as whole numbers are concerned, the mass is constant: $1+\text{235}=\text{142}+\text{91}+3$ . This is not true when we consider the masses out to 6 or 7 significant places, as in the previous example.

Not every neutron produced by fission induces fission. Some neutrons escape the fissionable material, while others interact with a nucleus without making it fission. We can enhance the number of fissions produced by neutrons by having a large amount of fissionable material. The minimum amount necessary for self-sustained fission of a given nuclide is called its critical mass    . Some nuclides, such as ${}^{\text{239}}\text{Pu}$ , produce more neutrons per fission than others, such as ${}^{\text{235}}\text{U}$ . Additionally, some nuclides are easier to make fission than others. In particular, ${}^{\text{235}}\text{U}$ and ${}^{\text{239}}\text{Pu}$ are easier to fission than the much more abundant ${}^{\text{238}}\text{U}$ . Both factors affect critical mass, which is smallest for ${}^{\text{239}}\text{Pu}$ .

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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