<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
  • Define nuclear fission.
  • Discuss how fission fuel reacts and describe what it produces.
  • Describe controlled and uncontrolled chain reactions.

Nuclear fission is a reaction in which a nucleus is split (or fissured ). Controlled fission is a reality, whereas controlled fusion is a hope for the future. Hundreds of nuclear fission power plants around the world attest to the fact that controlled fission is practical and, at least in the short term, economical, as seen in [link] . Whereas nuclear power was of little interest for decades following TMI and Chernobyl (and now Fukushima Daiichi), growing concerns over global warming has brought nuclear power back on the table as a viable energy alternative. By the end of 2009, there were 442 reactors operating in 30 countries, providing 15% of the world’s electricity. France provides over 75% of its electricity with nuclear power, while the US has 104 operating reactors providing 20% of its electricity. Australia and New Zealand have none. China is building nuclear power plants at the rate of one start every month.

The image shows people living in their homes located near a nuclear power plant.
The people living near this nuclear power plant have no measurable exposure to radiation that is traceable to the plant. About 16% of the world’s electrical power is generated by controlled nuclear fission in such plants. The cooling towers are the most prominent features but are not unique to nuclear power. The reactor is in the small domed building to the left of the towers. (credit: Kalmthouts)

Fission is the opposite of fusion and releases energy only when heavy nuclei are split. As noted in Fusion , energy is released if the products of a nuclear reaction have a greater binding energy per nucleon ( BE / A size 12{"BE"/A} {} ) than the parent nuclei. [link] shows that BE / A size 12{"BE"/A} {} is greater for medium-mass nuclei than heavy nuclei, implying that when a heavy nucleus is split, the products have less mass per nucleon, so that mass is destroyed and energy is released in the reaction. The amount of energy per fission reaction can be large, even by nuclear standards. The graph in [link] shows BE / A size 12{"BE"/A} {} to be about 7.6 MeV/nucleon for the heaviest nuclei ( A size 12{A} {} about 240), while BE / A size 12{"BE"/A} {} is about 8.6 MeV/nucleon for nuclei having A size 12{A} {} about 120. Thus, if a heavy nucleus splits in half, then about 1 MeV per nucleon, or approximately 240 MeV per fission, is released. This is about 10 times the energy per fusion reaction, and about 100 times the energy of the average α size 12{α} {} , β size 12{β} {} , or γ size 12{γ} {} decay.

Calculating energy released by fission

Calculate the energy released in the following spontaneous fission reaction:

238 U 95 Sr + 140 Xe + 3 n

given the atomic masses to be m ( 238 U ) = 238.050784 u , m ( 95 Sr ) = 94.919388 u , m ( 140 Xe ) = 139.921610 u , and m ( n ) = 1.008665 u .

Strategy

As always, the energy released is equal to the mass destroyed times c 2 size 12{c rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , so we must find the difference in mass between the parent 238 U size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"238"} } U} {} and the fission products.

Solution

The products have a total mass of

m products = 94.919388 u + 139.921610 u + 3 1.008665 u = 237.866993 u.

The mass lost is the mass of 238 U size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"238"} } U} {} minus m products size 12{m rSub { size 8{"products"} } } {} , or

Δ m = 238.050784 u 237.8669933 u = 0.183791 u ,

so the energy released is

E = Δ m c 2 = 0.183791 u 931.5 Me V/ c 2 u c 2 = 171.2 MeV. alignl { stack { size 12{E= left (Δm right )c rSup { size 8{2} } } {} #" "= left (0 "." "183791"`u right ) { {"931" "." 5`"MeV/"c rSup { size 8{2} } } over {u} } c rSup { size 8{2} } ="171"`"MeV" "." {} } } {}

Discussion

A number of important things arise in this example. The 171-MeV energy released is large, but a little less than the earlier estimated 240 MeV. This is because this fission reaction produces neutrons and does not split the nucleus into two equal parts. Fission of a given nuclide, such as 238 U size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"238"} } U} {} , does not always produce the same products. Fission is a statistical process in which an entire range of products are produced with various probabilities. Most fission produces neutrons, although the number varies with each fission. This is an extremely important aspect of fission, because neutrons can induce more fission , enabling self-sustaining chain reactions.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply
Practice Key Terms 9

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Physics for the modern world. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11865/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Physics for the modern world' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask