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Determine the eccentricity of the hyperbola described by the equation

( y 3 ) 2 49 ( x + 2 ) 2 25 = 1 .

e = c a = 74 7 1.229

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Polar equations of conic sections

Sometimes it is useful to write or identify the equation of a conic section in polar form. To do this, we need the concept of the focal parameter. The focal parameter    of a conic section p is defined as the distance from a focus to the nearest directrix. The following table gives the focal parameters for the different types of conics, where a is the length of the semi-major axis (i.e., half the length of the major axis), c is the distance from the origin to the focus, and e is the eccentricity. In the case of a parabola, a represents the distance from the vertex to the focus.

Eccentricities and focal parameters of the conic sections
Conic e p
Ellipse 0 < e < 1 a 2 c 2 c = a ( 1 e 2 ) c
Parabola e = 1 2 a
Hyperbola e > 1 c 2 a 2 c = a ( e 2 1 ) e

Using the definitions of the focal parameter and eccentricity of the conic section, we can derive an equation for any conic section in polar coordinates. In particular, we assume that one of the foci of a given conic section lies at the pole. Then using the definition of the various conic sections in terms of distances, it is possible to prove the following theorem.

Polar equation of conic sections

The polar equation of a conic section with focal parameter p is given by

r = e p 1 ± e cos θ or r = e p 1 ± e sin θ .

In the equation on the left, the major axis of the conic section is horizontal, and in the equation on the right, the major axis is vertical. To work with a conic section written in polar form, first make the constant term in the denominator equal to 1. This can be done by dividing both the numerator and the denominator of the fraction by the constant that appears in front of the plus or minus in the denominator. Then the coefficient of the sine or cosine in the denominator is the eccentricity. This value identifies the conic. If cosine appears in the denominator, then the conic is horizontal. If sine appears, then the conic is vertical. If both appear then the axes are rotated. The center of the conic is not necessarily at the origin. The center is at the origin only if the conic is a circle (i.e., e = 0 ) .

Graphing a conic section in polar coordinates

Identify and create a graph of the conic section described by the equation

r = 3 1 + 2 cos θ .

The constant term in the denominator is 1, so the eccentricity of the conic is 2. This is a hyperbola. The focal parameter p can be calculated by using the equation e p = 3 . Since e = 2 , this gives p = 3 2 . The cosine function appears in the denominator, so the hyperbola is horizontal. Pick a few values for θ and create a table of values. Then we can graph the hyperbola ( [link] ).

θ r θ r
0 1 π −3
π 4 3 1 + 2 1.2426 5 π 4 3 1 2 −7.2426
π 2 3 3 π 2 3
3 π 4 3 1 2 −7.2426 7 π 4 3 1 + 2 1.2426
Graph of a hyperbola with equation r = 3/(1 + 2 cosθ), center at (2, 0), and vertices at (1, 0) and (3, 0).
Graph of the hyperbola described in [link] .
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Identify and create a graph of the conic section described by the equation

r = 4 1 0.8 sin θ .

Here e = 0.8 and p = 5 . This conic section is an ellipse.
Graph of an ellipse with equation r = 4/(1 – 0.8 sinθ), center near (0, 11), major axis roughly 22, and minor axis roughly 12.

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General equations of degree two

A general equation of degree two can be written in the form

A x 2 + B x y + C y 2 + D x + E y + F = 0 .

The graph of an equation of this form is a conic section. If B 0 then the coordinate axes are rotated. To identify the conic section, we use the discriminant    of the conic section 4 A C B 2 . One of the following cases must be true:

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 3. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11966/1.2
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