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Meeting standards

Standards for educational administration preparation programs and professional practice are a topic ofintense interest continually being discussed by professional organizations and university preparation programs across thenation. Numerous articles, books, and presentations have addressed the topic of applied standards such as those by Beyer&Ruhl-Smith (2000), Capasso&Daresh (2001), Hoyle, English,&Steffy, (1998), Murphy, Hawley,&Young (2005), and Wilmore, E. L. (2002). The State of Michigan does not offer acertificate in school administration. From 1995 to 2004, the educational administration strand of the public administrationprogram was developed and patterned after previous Michigan Department of Education (MDE) program standards for schooladministrators, which were eliminated by the State in 2000, and the National Policy Board for Educational Administration Knowledge andSkill Base for School Principals (NPBEA, 1993). Both the required and elective courses in the MPA program addressed the NPBEAessential knowledge and skills base for effective school principals (Thompson, 1993). In 2004, the Michigan Department of Education(MDE) approved a new set of program standards for the preparation of school principals. This program is patterned after two specificsets of existing national standards. First, is the Interstate School Leader Licensure Consortium Standards for School Leaders(ISLLC) (Council of Chief State School Officers, 1996) which specifically address the topics of leadership and vision,instruction and student academic success, allocation of resources, school and community relations, ethics, and the political, social,legal, and cultural context of leading schools. The Technology Standards for School Administrators (TSSA, 2004), is the second setof standards incorporated into the new MDE preparation guidelines. These are defined as:

I. Leadership and Vision - Educational leaders inspire a shared vision for comprehensive integration oftechnology and foster an environment and culture conducive to the realization of that vision.

II. Learning and Teaching - Educational leaders ensure that curricular design, instructional strategies,and learning environments integrate appropriate technologies to maximize learning and teaching.

III. Productivity and Professional Practice - Educational leaders apply technology to enhance their professionalpractice and to increase their own productivity and that of others.

IV. Support, Management, and Operations - Educational leaders ensure the integration of technology to supportproductive systems for learning and administration.

V. Assessment and Evaluation - Educational leaders use technology to plan and implement comprehensive systemsof effective assessment and evaluation.

VI. Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues - Educational leaders understand the social, legal, and ethicalissues related to technology and model responsible decision-making related to these issues (TSSA, 2004).

The educational administration portion of the MPA program has been revised to meet the Michigan Department ofEducation Program Standards for the Preparation of School Principals (Michigan Department of Education, 2004). Thispreparation program is based on the ISLLC Standards and Technology Standards for School Administrators, as described above, with theaddition of an internship requirement in a school setting providing the educational administration student with the opportunity toapply the newly acquired knowledge and skills to practice:

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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