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Most economies in the real world are mixed; they combine elements of command and market (and even traditional) systems. The U.S. economy is positioned toward the market-oriented end of the spectrum. Many countries in Europe and Latin America, while primarily market-oriented, have a greater degree of government involvement in economic decisions than does the U.S. economy. China and Russia, while they are closer to having a market-oriented system now than several decades ago, remain closer to the command economy end of the spectrum. A rich resource of information about countries and their economies can be found on the Heritage Foundation’s website, as the following Clear It Up feature discusses.

What countries are considered economically free?

Who is in control of economic decisions? Are people free to do what they want and to work where they want? Are businesses free to produce when they want and what they choose, and to hire and fire as they wish? Are banks free to choose who will receive loans? Or does the government control these kinds of choices? Each year, researchers at the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal look at 50 different categories of economic freedom for countries around the world. They give each nation a score based on the extent of economic freedom in each category.

The 2015 Heritage Foundation’s Index of Economic Freedom report ranked 178 countries around the world: some examples of the most free and the least free countries are listed in [link] . Several countries were not ranked because of extreme instability that made judgments about economic freedom impossible. These countries include Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, and Somalia.

The assigned rankings are inevitably based on estimates, yet even these rough measures can be useful for discerning trends. In 2015, 101 of the 178 included countries shifted toward greater economic freedom, although 77 of the countries shifted toward less economic freedom. In recent decades, the overall trend has been a higher level of economic freedom around the world .

(Source: The Heritage Foundation, 2015 Index of Economic Freedom, Country Rankings, http://www.heritage.org/index/ranking)
Economic freedoms, 2015
Most Economic Freedom Least Economic Freedom
1. Hong Kong 167. Timor-Leste
2. Singapore 168. Democratic Republic of Congo
3. New Zealand 169. Argentina
4. Australia 170. Republic of Congo
5. Switzerland 171. Iran
6. Canada 172. Turkmenistan
7. Chile 173. Equatorial Guinea
8. Estonia 174. Eritrea
9. Ireland 175. Zimbabwe
10. Mauritius 176. Venezuela
11. Denmark 177. Cuba
12. United States 178. North Korea

Regulations: the rules of the game

Markets and government regulations are always entangled. There is no such thing as an absolutely free market. Regulations always define the “rules of the game” in the economy. Economies that are primarily market-oriented have fewer regulations—ideally just enough to maintain an even playing field for participants. At a minimum, these laws govern matters like safeguarding private property against theft, protecting people from violence, enforcing legal contracts, preventing fraud, and collecting taxes. Conversely, even the most command-oriented economies operate using markets. How else would buying and selling occur? But the decisions of what will be produced and what prices will be charged are heavily regulated. Heavily regulated economies often have underground economies , which are markets where the buyers and sellers make transactions without the government’s approval.

Questions & Answers

what is total cost
Tommy Reply
variable cost + fixed cost
Asit
.
there's a picture of a bread being bought and the consumer got sick after eating it. the question was "identify the type of fallacy referred to the article
Jay Reply
what is indifference curve
egbebiyi Reply
what is utility
Labiba Reply
utility is the satisfaction derived from consuming a particular product.
taiwo
utility is the satisfaction a consumer derives from consuming a particular good
Chinenye
you are right
Ishaq
nice one chi
taiwo
you are right
Adebayo
thank you 🙏
Labiba
thanks
Chinenye
you are right
Nak
Demand refers to the various quantities of a commodity a consumer is willing and able to purchase at particular price with a period of time.
Clifford Reply
perfect
Labiba
Demand is refer to as the quantity of goods and services which a consumer is willing and able to buy at a particular point in time and at a given price.
taiwo
What is demand
Magdalene Reply
What is divided
Alfusainey Reply
It help us to no how to do with our money
Alfusainey
Demand curve us a graph showing the relationship between the price and quantity of a commoditiy demand
Alfusainey
Demand schedule is define as a table showing the relationship between prices and the quantity of that commoditiy demanded
Alfusainey
Demand may be defined as a quantity of good or services that consumers are walling and able to buy at a alternative prices
Alfusainey
The law of demand states that all things being equal the higher the price the lower the quantity that will be demanded vice versa
Alfusainey
The law of supply states that all things being equal the higher the price the higher the quantity of a commoditiy that will be supplied vice versa
Alfusainey
yes
Vinsaint
what is money
Siaw Reply
money is defined as the medium of exchange
jackie
money is anything that serves as a medium of exchange,measure of value and standard for deferred payment
Chinenye
money is legal tender that is use for buying good n service
Nak
Money is anything that has general acceptability as a medium of exchanging dabt
Alfusainey
Money is a legally or socially binding conceptual contract of entitlement to wealth, void of intrinsic value, payable for all debts and taxes, regulated in supply.
Nana
money is accepted material for buying and selling and also for payment of dept
Dora
what is economics
reekado Reply
what is the meaning of term depreciation
Niyogushimwa
I don't know tell me pls
Manuel
decrease in the valaue of currency is called depreciation.
Asit
managing the scarce resources is called economics 😉
Asit
definition of economics according to different scholars
Onesmo Reply
Economics is a science that studies human behavior as a relationship between end and scarce means which have alternative uses:by Davern spot
Dora
am I correct?
Dora
Yeah you tried
Donkiss
reason why we study economics
Moruf Reply
what is economics
Tutu Reply
economics is defined as the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.
Semiat
social science
Maxwell
Economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.
Maxwell
Yh ar right
Alfusainey
what is a gross domestic product
Amogelang Reply
Explain what is a production possibility curve
Sharon Reply
A curve that indicates the various production possibilities of two commodities when resources are fixed...
Geoffrey
what is market?
Jasmin Reply
ware the Byers and seller's that please is called market
suresh
a place where buyers and sellers meet
Tariro
I don't like this market definition.
Jasmin
market is any arrangement whereby buyers and sellers are brought together for the purpose of transacting business. It could be a geographical location or any other means such as internet, mobile phone etc. as long as buyers and sellers are brought together for the purpose of exchange.
Agusimba
A market is a place where buyers and sellers buy and sell goods through bargaining.
Jasmin
yes ,you are correct Agusimba sir.
Jasmin

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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