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Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS). 2005.

Figure 3. Main countries of origin.

Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS). 2005.

The number of undocumented people in Spain at the beginning of 2005 was considered to be approximately one million, emphasizing the positive action of the present government who has undertaken a successful process of regularization of 700,000 people in 2005. However, the immigration of undocumented people continues to increase in Spain.

A study, "Immigration in Spain," by the Foundation of Saving Funds (FUNCAS), published in Papeles de Economía (January 2004), predicted that more than one fourth of those who reside in Spain in 2015 will be immigrants. According to the study, in 2015 there will be 11.7 million foreigners, which is 27.4% of Spain’s population; by then that will be about 43 million inhabitants. Spain will take five years to double its present foreign population (2.3 million registered), having in 2008, 4.6 million immigrants, with increasing migrations of other origins than that of Europeans. According to the study, economic consequences are very positive: its rate of activity is 16.5 points over the average Spanish and already represents 5.14% of those affiliated with Social Security. According to a January, 2004 report given in El País , each foreigner sends an average of 322 euros monthly, which is about 2.3 billion euros annually as remittance of the immigrants to their countries. In comparison with Europe, here are data to reflect and compare: in Germany there are 7.3 million foreigners (9% of its population); Austria has a 9.1% of foreigners; Belgium, France, Holland, and England each have around 9%; and Sweden has 11.3% of foreigners.

Madrid has the greatest percentage of immigrants in Spain (13%). It has increased since 1997 from 3% to 13% of immigrants in reference to the total population; but Berlin has 13%, Paris 16%, London 20%, Toronto, Canada has 40%, New York 56%, and Los Angeles 64% of population of immigrants, although many of them are already citizens and legal residents.

And where do immigrants work? Of the 80% of jobs that the Spaniards do not want because of wages and working conditions, 33% are in the farming sector and collection of harvests, 20% are in domestic work and attention to the sick and elderly, 15% in construction, 12% in the catering business (kitchen/waiting), and 20% in other jobs. Figure 4 demonstrates types of immigrant positions.

Figure 4. Jobs of immigrants.

Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

The height of the islam phobia after september 11, 2001 and march 11, 2004

Given the height of fear against Islam in the last decade that has increased considerably after the terrorism attack of September 11, 2001, on New York, and the criminal attempt of March 11, 2004, in Madrid, the dialogue between Islam and Christianity has become one of the greater challenges of 21 st century. The terrorist massacre of March 11 in Madrid terrified the minds and hearts, not only of the Madrilenians and Spaniards, but of all people of good will in the world. Pain, rage, disgust, physical, and moral sentencing were, and still are the feelings shaped deeply in the spoken silence, in symbolic fires, and in the massive rituals of symbolic rebellion and fraternal communion with the victims. There will be in the history of Spain a before and after this date; a date with limits and symbolism that began with the televising of the horror of September 11 in New York. In those three diachronic years (2001-04), there was a war in Arabic territory, an invasion, thousands of deaths, as much of crossed Christians and Islamic fanatics with the hatred of violent Jews and Palestinians. In this cruel and fratricidal atmosphere, within a structure of inequality and world-wide injustice between few very rich countries (mainly western), and between many very poor countries, it is very difficult to construct a world with peace, justice, freedom, democracy, solidarity, equality, and brotherhood. Nevertheless, that is the human obligation and destiny if the human species wants to survive in a single world and common globalized home in justice and freedom, enriched with the plurality of cultures and religions of the world.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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