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Spain for the first time in its history: change from an emitting to receiving country of immigrants

The increase of immigration in Spain has been happening at a remarkable rate, mainly in the last four years, as it can be seen in the graph in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Evolution of the resident of foreign population in Spain.

Source : National Institute of Statistics (NIS). 2005

The total number of immigrants regularized at the beginning of 2005 was 3,691,547, which entails 8.4% of the 40 million Spanish populations. It would be necessary to add the people regularized during the first months of 2005, which would be about 4 million regularized immigrants, and an undetermined number of undocumented people, who some estimate at about half a million.

Immigrants concentrate themselves mainly in 5 of the 17 autonomous communities in Spain. Madrid and Catalonia have just about half of all immigrants, and if the following are added, the Valencia Community, Andalusia, and the Canary Islands, it would add up to 80% of all immigrants in Spain.

According to Figure 2, immigrants of American nationalities are the greatest contingent of 1,460,176 regularized people, which almost adds to 40% of all foreigners, exactly 39.6%. Of these, Ecuador is the greatest national group of Latin American immigrants (491,797), which is 13.3% of the total population of immigrants. Following it is Colombia, with 268,931 (7.3% of the total number of immigrants), Argentina with 151,878 (4.7%), Bolivia with 96,844 (2.6%), and Peru with 84,427 (2.3% of the total number of immigrants) in Spain.

Figure 2. Resident foreigners in Spain by areas of origin.

Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS). 2005

The second group, by nationalities, would be the Europeans with 1,336,214 foreigners, (36.2% of the total immigrants). From the European Union (25 countries), 766,678 (20.8%) of the total foreigners are in Spain, surpassing the United Kingdom (224,841 foreigners) and Germany (131,887). And 561,476 are foreigners of other European countries (15.2% of the total number of immigrants), the most numerous being Romania with 314,349 (8.5% of the total number of immigrants), followed by Bulgaria with 91,339 (2.5%). African nationalities would be the third group, with 705,944 (19.1% of the total number of foreigners); Morocco being the most numerous national group with 505,373, again surpassing Ecuador (491,797), and representing 13.7% of the total of foreigners in Spain. There are 186,227 foreigners of Asian nationalities (5.0% of the total number of foreigners), the Chinese being the most numerous with 86,681 immigrants, adding to 2.3% of the total number of immigrants. In Oceania there are 2,284 foreigners (0.1% of immigration). (See Table 1 and Figure 3).

Table 1. foreigners in spain according to nationality, to january 1, 2005

Total 3.691.547 100.0
European Nationalities 1.336.214 36.2
European Union (25) 766.678 20.8
United Kingdom 224.841 6.1
Germany 131.887 3.6
Italy 94.464 2.6
France 76.949 2.1
Portugal 65.611 1.8
Poland 35.962 1.0
Holland 33.554 0.9
Belgium 26.388 0.7
Other European countries 561.475 15.2
Rumania 314.349 8.5
Bulgaria 91.339 2.5
Ukraine 65.096 1.8
Russia 35.942 1.0
African Nationalities 705.944 19.1
Morocco 505.373 13.7
Algeria 45.791 1.2
Senegal 29.334 0.8
Nigeria 26.877 0.7
American Nationalities 1.460.176 39.6
Ecuador 491.797 13.3
Colombia 268.931 7.3
Argentina 151.878 4.1
Bolivia 96.844 2.6
Peru 84.427 2.3
Dominican Republic 56.421 1.5
Brazil 53.736 1.5
Venezuela 48.740 1.3
Cuba 44.594 1.2
Uruguay 42.062 1.1
Chile 35.579 1.0
United States 25.576 0.7
Asian Nationalities 186.227 5.0
China 86.681 2.3
Pakistan 31.652 0.9
Oceania 2.284 0.1
Apátrias 702 0.0

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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