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It was at this time that the NCATE approached CPEA with a proposal to study what would become “criteria for theaccreditation of graduate programs of study which prepare school administrators” (Moore, 1964, p. 27). As Moore (1964) described thework of this group he noted that, “Perhaps the most significant work of the Committee revolved around the establishment (throughpolitical/professional sanctions) of standards for the preparation of school administrators” (p. 27). It is noteworthy as well, torecognize the founding of the UCEA as an outgrowth of the CPEA. The Kellogg Foundation, which had supported CPEA’s founding as aconsortium of eight elite universities, agreed to extend funding to include an original group of thirty-three universities with thepurpose “to improve the training of school administrators, stimulate and coordinate research, and distribute materialsresulting from research and training activities” (Campbell, Fleming, Newell, Bennion, 1987, p. 14).

Although one might consider the development of the ISLLC standards a framework and starting point for educationaladministration curriculum development it was, in actuality, a logical extension of work, and thought, that had gone on for morethan thirty years within the field. The overall effect of the ISLLC standards focused on program development and the articulation ofwhat principals should know and be able to do. They also brought some national uniformity to the standards movement. On the whole,the standards addressed preparation at the pre-service level. They were minimal expectations/requirements that established a frameworkthat informed university programs preparing educational leaders at the Master’s degree level. Figure 2 reflects these factors.

One must keep in mind that the ISLLC standards are a snap-shot of an era and must continue to be revised toreflect contemporary thinking as school, society, and education evolve and change. They are limited in their scope to reflect andnot define the complete knowledge base of educational administration. They address what the profession considers to beentry level skills, abilities, and knowledge. They do not encompass the entire knowledge base and do not address, in depth, areas thatone expects to find in a specialist or doctoral degree.

The Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards moved educational administrationpreparation to consider contemporary ideas about leadership and learning. As Murphy (2005) stated, “(T)he objective of the ISLLChas been to yoke the Standards to important leverage points for change. The goal has been to generate the critical supportnecessary to move school administration out of its 100-year orbit and then to reposition the profession around leadership forlearning” (p. 180). These standards are applied (enforced some would say) on preparation programs through state and nationalaccreditation programs.

The ISLLC standards focused educational administration preparation at the master’s degree level and gaveprograms a lens to view the curriculum for pre-service content. The other side of the argument is that they dumbed down the curriculumand reduced the educational administration program to a narrow interpretation of the knowledge base. More damning to English(2005) is that the ISLLC standards have no grounding in research to validate what they guide principals to know and do. One must takethe view that having these standards was the culmination of a long march by the field to better frame what principals should know andbe able to do. Although many might disagree over which standards are more or less important, it is clear that standards helpedprovide clarity for professors of educational administration as they planned programs and individual lessons.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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