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Arts and culture

Grade 6

Personal and social skills

Module 4

Dance/movement: warming up and skill-development

To link up with the disciplines of the Learning Area we focus on the qualities of movement, emphasising African movements, rhythms and dances.

Warming up and skill-development

Warming up

  • Warming up should be done increasingly and faithfully. Its purpose is to safeguard the body against injuries, make it supple and keep it in shape and to develop technical skills. Combinations and sequences of movement should be included.
  • The learner should follow the educator’s guidance when a sequence of warming up exercises is introduced. Repetition of sequences and the correct placing of the body are always important in conditioning the body and to make it supple and develop skills.
  • You will get the opportunity to create your own combinations and sequences, which will include elements of design for choreography, e.g. fast, slow, light, flowing, jerky, high, low, quiet or peaceful.
  • Dance and warming up exercises executed faithfully and with purpose can also prepare and strengthen your body for your favourite sport.

Explore quality of movement

When it comes to the dynamics of energy we are concerned with the quality of movement. The quality of movement includes the following:

  • swinging – energy released with a pendulum quality which can be executed in different ways;
  • percussive – energy released in powerful, quick movements and stops, e.g. karate and boxing;
  • sustained movement is a continuous not-ending movement, e.g. a gliding eagle;
  • vibratory motion – a rapid, rhythmic release of body energy, e.g. the hovering of a bird’s wings;
  • gliding movement (suspension) – where the driving force behind a movement ceases for a brief moment, e.g. that sensation when, at the climax of a movement, the body stops momentarily; and
  • collapsible movement – a natural fall or entire collapse to and merging with the floor in relaxation.

Select a primary colour for each of the movement qualities and create your own combination by using any three movement qualities repetitively, such as a vibratory, pendulum and gliding motion. Choose a friend to work with, memorise each other’s movements and execute these movements together.

Reflection (Write in your diary or journal)

What movement quality can be compared to the African instrument made by you in the class?

How can colour be portrayed in movement?

Activity 1:

To explore relations through dance

[lo 3.1, 3.2]

Explore descriptive words through movement. Experiment with the following words by making sculptural shapes to give shape to the word. Experiment and try different shapes at various levels.

  • Select one of the words from the list and make a sculptural form to give shape to the word.
  • Choose three body shapes: one close to the floor, one high and one on medium level.

Descriptive words:

Rest Shade Thin Dark
Heavy Silence Big Flat
Hard strong Light Soft
Dainty angular round course
  • Repeat these shapes alternatively until the body can change fluently from one shape to the other.
  • Link the shapes with moving actions (locomotive) like a turn, a glide or a jump (e.g. a shape on a high level: a turn; a shape on a low level: a roll; a shape on a medium level: a jump). Repeat several times.
  • Choose three contrasting words and form three different shapes. Practise these shapes as described and link them with moving actions. Finally add all the body shapes together.
  • Practise these movements and refine them by adding dynamic actions (qualities of movement), while varying the speed to expose contrasts. Work with a partner and teach him/her your sequence of movements. Execute it together.

Use appropriate vocabulary to +describe and assess each other’s dances.

Activity 2:

To choose a simple traditional africa- or culture dance

[lo 3.1, 3.2]

Choose a simple traditional African dance or a dance true to the culture of the community. Ask somebody who knows the dance (a member of the community or someone in your class) to teach you how to do it. Practise and execute it.


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 3
PARTICIPATION AND COOPERATION The learner is able to display personal and social skills while participating in arts and culture activities as an individual and in a group.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
GENERALIn regard to 3.1 – 3.6 below:
  • cooperates with other group members during arts activities;
  • is able to make his or her own contribution within the group;
  • accepts fellow learners;
  • shares resources, choice of materials and negotiates choice of subject matter in group project with other learners, with focus on:
  • joint decision-making;
  • presentation;
  • safety;
  • the environment;
  • cultural diversity.
MUSIC (3.5)
  • sings and/or plays in a group – canons, rounds and two-part songs from at least three cultural traditions of South Africa;
  • extends and develops given snippets of dialogue with a partner, showing ability to “feed off” and respond to partner’s ideas;
  • assumes both leader and follower roles willingly in dramatic activities;
  • displays dance partner skills in dance sequences;
  • shares opinions with other learners about dances from various cultures in a supportive and constructive way.
  • extends and develops given snippets of dialogue with a partner, showing ability to “feed off” and respond to partner’s ideas;
  • assumes both leader and follower roles willingly in dramatic activities;
DRAMA (3.3, 3.4)
  • extends and develops given snippets of dialogue with a partner, showing ability to “feed off” and respond to partner’s ideas;
  • assumes both leader and follower roles willingly in dramatic activities;

Questions & Answers

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Stoney Reply
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Adin Reply
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Damian Reply
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Damian Reply
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s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11007/1.1
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