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Africa

Back to Africa: A.D. 1401 to 1500

Northeast africa

The horn of Africa now became the site of bitter conflict, originally a trading rivalry, but soon a long religious and political fight between Christians of Ethiopia and the Muslim coastal states. The sultan of Adal (now between Somalia and Ethiopia), Ahmad Gran, attacked into the heartland of Ethiopia in the 1520s with the help of Danakill and Somali nomads. The Christian Amhara nation dominated the Ethiopian plateau at that time and sustained a flourishing ecclesiastical art. (Ref. 8 , 270 ) The pope sent Portuguese soldiers, led by Christopher da Gama (Vasco's son), to help against this Muslim conquest in a 20 year long war. As a result of that help by Portuguese, Ethiopia came under Catholic influence for the first time, as their own Coptic Church had been declared heretical some 1,100 years previously. The Jesuits with the Portuguese tried to convert the Ethiopians, apparently without too much success, as all Catholic missions were expelled by the next century. But the old Christian empire was so exhausted by the warfare that the pagan Galla, from the south and east then invaded and settled in the country, with general anarchy resulting. (Ref. 175 , 8 , 83 ) Additional Notes

In what is now the country of Sudan, the Funj people appeared early in this century, defeated the Arabs and established a powerful kingdom around the capital Sennar, on the Blue Nile. The people, known as the "Black Sultans" of eastern Sudan eventually adopted Islam. (Ref. 83 )

In Egypt the last Mamluk sultan was Qansuh al-Ghuri, a scholarly man coming to the throne late in life. Decadence, rivalry and corruption continued in his regime. To add to the Mamluk troubles, their trading ports were now by-passed by the Portuguese trade- routes around the Cape of Good Hope and the Egyptian treasury was soon empty. The stage was set for the advance of the Ottoman Turk, Selim I, who defeated the Mamluk army in Syria and advanced to rule Egypt and Hejaz (Saudi Arabia). (Ref. 5 )

North central and northwest africa

Estimates of the population of North Africa in this century vary from 2,000,000 to 3,500,000. (Ref. 260 ) After da Gama's voyage around Africa at the end of the preceding century, the economic ascendancy of North Africa ended. Science and philosophy lost out to both Christianity and Islam and the area began to decline to the status we know today. In the early century, both Spain and Portugal gained control of some Moroccan ports, but in a great battle of Alcazarquivir in 1578, King Sebastian of Portugal was killed and the Moroccans preserved their independence for another half century, usually ruled by factions of the Sharifian Dynasty. (Ref. 175 ) That country, alone of the north African states, remained independent of the Ottomans. At the height of its power, in about 1590, Morocco invaded the Songhai Empire and set up a client state in the sudan, disrupting the economy of that entire region. (Ref. 8 ) Throughout the century local fairs were set up in connection with local saints and pilgrimages. One of the largest was among the Gouzzoula, south of the Anti-Atlas, looking out over the desert. It survived for hundreds of years. (Ref. 292 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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