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Contextual factors

The concept of incorporation has been defined as the process through which immigrants are channeled into specific positions within the economic stratification system of a host society (Portes&Rumbaut, 1996, p. 83). According to this concept, where individuals end up in this stratification system does not depend on their level of acculturation or assimilation per se , but on their levels of human capital, pertinent government policies, the positive or discriminatory nature of the labor market at the time, and the extent to which existing ethnic communities in the U.S. have been able to receive and support the more recent immigrants. For a long time, inadequate models emphasizing the individual characteristics of immigrants were utilized in an attempt to explain their ability to find a niche in the economic structure of the United States. The contextual model proposed by Portes and Rumbaut, however, aims at overcoming the deficiencies of those individual models.

Portes and Rumbaut (1996) suggested that the political environment and the nature of the receiving ethnic community can easily nullify the potential effects of high or low human capital. The experiences of the 1980 Cuban Mariel immigrants clearly illustrate this point. Most members of this second wave of Cuban migration, who were poor and inexperienced in capitalism, were hired in Florida by well connected and successful Cuban entrepreneurs. Six years after their arrival into the U.S., approximately 20% of the new immigrants who had received support from the already existing Cuban network, had become self-employed (Portes&Rumbaut, 1996, p. 91). Their experience shows that the U.S. policy of granting immediate political asylum to Cuban immigrants and providing them with special programs to help them resettle combined with the support received from the Cuban-American community, contributed more to the success of the new immigrants than their level of acculturation or human capital. Hispanic immigrants from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean have not been equally successful because their contexts of incorporation have not been the same. Many Hispanic immigrants have become incorporated into the U.S. economy and have progressed socially and economically in spite of their low levels of acculturation and obviously without having been assimilated.

A new theory

Consistent with Portes and Rumbaut’s theory, I propose a theory related to the socio-economic development of Hispanics that includes individual, group and contextual factors. Such a model calls for managing the interactions between human capital, social policy-making, the labor market, and the role of ethnic communities in the United States as well as individual and group factors affecting inclusion. Such factors include: their time of arrival into the country, whether the particular group came to U.S. voluntarily or involuntarily, the degree of cultural similarity between the incoming and the dominant group, the racial characteristics (phenotypes) of the immigrant group, the desire of the group to become assimilated, the desire of the dominant group to accept the members of the incoming group, as equals, the size of the incoming group, and the degree of unity within the immigrant group or groups. According to the new proposed theory, all of these factors will be predictors of incorporation and of their socio-economic development.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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