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Contextual factors

The concept of incorporation has been defined as the process through which immigrants are channeled into specific positions within the economic stratification system of a host society (Portes&Rumbaut, 1996, p. 83). According to this concept, where individuals end up in this stratification system does not depend on their level of acculturation or assimilation per se , but on their levels of human capital, pertinent government policies, the positive or discriminatory nature of the labor market at the time, and the extent to which existing ethnic communities in the U.S. have been able to receive and support the more recent immigrants. For a long time, inadequate models emphasizing the individual characteristics of immigrants were utilized in an attempt to explain their ability to find a niche in the economic structure of the United States. The contextual model proposed by Portes and Rumbaut, however, aims at overcoming the deficiencies of those individual models.

Portes and Rumbaut (1996) suggested that the political environment and the nature of the receiving ethnic community can easily nullify the potential effects of high or low human capital. The experiences of the 1980 Cuban Mariel immigrants clearly illustrate this point. Most members of this second wave of Cuban migration, who were poor and inexperienced in capitalism, were hired in Florida by well connected and successful Cuban entrepreneurs. Six years after their arrival into the U.S., approximately 20% of the new immigrants who had received support from the already existing Cuban network, had become self-employed (Portes&Rumbaut, 1996, p. 91). Their experience shows that the U.S. policy of granting immediate political asylum to Cuban immigrants and providing them with special programs to help them resettle combined with the support received from the Cuban-American community, contributed more to the success of the new immigrants than their level of acculturation or human capital. Hispanic immigrants from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean have not been equally successful because their contexts of incorporation have not been the same. Many Hispanic immigrants have become incorporated into the U.S. economy and have progressed socially and economically in spite of their low levels of acculturation and obviously without having been assimilated.

A new theory

Consistent with Portes and Rumbaut’s theory, I propose a theory related to the socio-economic development of Hispanics that includes individual, group and contextual factors. Such a model calls for managing the interactions between human capital, social policy-making, the labor market, and the role of ethnic communities in the United States as well as individual and group factors affecting inclusion. Such factors include: their time of arrival into the country, whether the particular group came to U.S. voluntarily or involuntarily, the degree of cultural similarity between the incoming and the dominant group, the racial characteristics (phenotypes) of the immigrant group, the desire of the group to become assimilated, the desire of the dominant group to accept the members of the incoming group, as equals, the size of the incoming group, and the degree of unity within the immigrant group or groups. According to the new proposed theory, all of these factors will be predictors of incorporation and of their socio-economic development.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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