<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Human capital

Adjibolosoo (1993, p. 142) suggests that the human factor is the combination of “personality characteristics and other dimensions of human performance” which enable individuals to make valuable contributions to society. He views level of education, the possession of marketable skills, and people’s value systems, including their work ethic, as characteristics that determine the extent to which they can make valuable contributions to society.

Human capital theory posits that human capital comprises knowledge and skills individuals may have that make them economically productive (Schultz, 1961; Becker, 1964). The theory proposes that the more education and skills people have, the higher their societal rewards will be. It also asserts that investments in education represent the main strategy for human capital accumulation (Schultz, 1961; Becker, 1964). Many social scientists agree with the previous proposition; however, they emphasize that human capital is only increased by education that enhances the financial productivity of individuals (Little, 2003).

Social and behavioral scientists have attempted to operationally define the concept of human capital. Smith (1991), Schultz (1961), and Baum&Lake (2003), for instance, identify education as a key indicator of human capital. Haveman, Bershadker&Schwabish (2003) in turn, have identified the earnings capacity associated with education as a key indicator. The low levels of education of many Hispanics in the United States along with the resulting lower earnings potential strongly suggest that they collectively possess low levels of human capital.

Voluntary vs. involuntary arrival into the united states

According to McLemore (1991), and other authors, members of Hispanic groups in the United States who have been conquered, colonized or enslaved are more likely to resist acculturation and to reject the idea of assimilation. On the other hand, Hispanics choosing to come to the United States for other personal or professional reasons will be more likely to embrace the new culture. The unwillingness of many Hispanics to become acculturated or assimilated will not necessarily prevent their socio-economic progress; however, it may make it more difficult.

Most Mexicans, for example, reject the idea of assimilation because they have been defeated by the United States in several battles and many have been exploited by American employers, discriminated against or simply deported (Marger, 2000, p. 283). The animosity of many Mexican-Americans towards the United States and its dominant culture also stems out of the fact that political, economic and cultural tensions have existed between the two countries since their very inception (Becerra, 1988, p. 142). Some of these tensions have resulted from the fact that Mexico lost approximately 50% of its former territory to its neighbor to the north (Marger, 2000, p. 286).

Most Puerto Ricans also reject the idea of assimilation. Initially, they did not come to the United States. Instead, the United States came to Puerto Rico following their victory over Spain in the Spanish-American War. Consequently, Puerto Ricans represent the only Hispanic group coming from a territory that has been a colony for more than 500 years. Puerto Rico was a colony of Spain for 405 years and it has been a territory or colony of the United States for over a century (Wagenheim, 1970). Because of their colonial status, they lack the capacity to fully govern themselves while in Puerto Rico. They do not have any input into the formulation of the federal laws that govern them and they are not allowed to vote in presidential elections even though they are citizens of the United States. Reportedly, the Puerto Rican community trails all other Hispanic groups in the U.S. in almost all indicators of progress and well being, and it scores lower than African-Americans on some indicators (Chavez, 1991). An indicator of the lack of assimilation of Puerto Ricans is that every year they conduct a parade in every major city where they live. The primary purpose of these parades is to celebrate Puerto Rican culture and heritage and announce the group’s cultural distinctiveness (Lipton, 2000).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders' conversation and receive update notifications?