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Race and phenotypes

Racial similarity between the incoming and the dominant groups is also a key factor that may facilitate or prevent the socio-economic progress of Hispanics. Montalvo (1991) discussed the role that skin color and physiognomic features play in the acculturation, assimilation and overall experience of Hispanics in the United States. Reportedly, Hispanics in this country are selectively assimilated because many are considered to be Black by the White majority. Furthermore, Hispanics who possess light skin and European features are more likely to attain higher social status. Most importantly, Montalvo found that low social status, dark skin color and Indian or African physical features are associated with ethno-racial stress and psychosocial dysfunction.

The race-related experiences of Puerto Ricans in the United States may be representative of the experiences of other equally racially diverse immigrant Hispanic groups. Epidemiological studies have consistently revealed higher rates of mental illness for Puerto Ricans than for other ethnic groups (Mizio, 1979). In the United States, Puerto Ricans are often forced to define themselves as Black or White. This is perceived to be a threat to their "Puerto Rican" ethnic identification and to the cohesiveness of families in which all members are not of the same color. Being a Black Puerto Rican in the United States seems to be associated with higher levels of emotional distress as suggested by the higher rates of admission to psychiatric hospitals of this Puerto Rican subgroup. According to Rives Tobar (1980) when Puerto Ricans move to the United States, often dark-skinned family members are looked down upon by society while other family members are not. Reportedly, this differential treatment helps explain why the majority of Puerto Rican drug addicts in New York are dark-skinned members of White families (Rives Tobar, 1980).

According to Rodriguez (1980), racially mixed individuals who could be considered White in Latin America are considered Black in the United States. Reportedly, in Puerto Rico cultural identification is more important than racial identification while in the United States it is the other around. Furthermore, the way Puerto Ricans in the United States view themselves racially is often inconsistent with the way the general population perceives them. A survey she conducted in New York City revealed that 37% of a sample of Puerto Ricans considered themselves White while only 29% of them were considered White by the interviewer; 13% of the sample classified itself as Black while only 5% were classified as Black by the interviewer; 35% percent labeled themselves as brown as compared to 32% who were labeled as such by the interviewer. Finally, 13% classified themselves as beige as compared to 34% considered possibly White by the interviewer. Two percent of the respondents did not know how to classify themselves (Rodríguez, 1980).

Historically, Cubans have been predominantly White or Black with a smaller proportion of them being racially mixed (Szapocznik&Hernández, 1988, p. 162). White Cubans were over-represented among the upper classes in Cuba while Black Cubans were over-represented among the Cuban poor (Olson&Olson, 1995, p. 50). This helps us understand why the majority of Cuban Americans are White. Eighty-two percent (82%) of the Cuban immigrants in 1960 were White while only 2% were Black and approximately 15% were racially mixed (Olson&Olson, 1995, p. 61). This fact has contributed to the socio-economic development of Cubans in the United States, given the country’s tradition of White privilege.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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