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Race and phenotypes

Racial similarity between the incoming and the dominant groups is also a key factor that may facilitate or prevent the socio-economic progress of Hispanics. Montalvo (1991) discussed the role that skin color and physiognomic features play in the acculturation, assimilation and overall experience of Hispanics in the United States. Reportedly, Hispanics in this country are selectively assimilated because many are considered to be Black by the White majority. Furthermore, Hispanics who possess light skin and European features are more likely to attain higher social status. Most importantly, Montalvo found that low social status, dark skin color and Indian or African physical features are associated with ethno-racial stress and psychosocial dysfunction.

The race-related experiences of Puerto Ricans in the United States may be representative of the experiences of other equally racially diverse immigrant Hispanic groups. Epidemiological studies have consistently revealed higher rates of mental illness for Puerto Ricans than for other ethnic groups (Mizio, 1979). In the United States, Puerto Ricans are often forced to define themselves as Black or White. This is perceived to be a threat to their "Puerto Rican" ethnic identification and to the cohesiveness of families in which all members are not of the same color. Being a Black Puerto Rican in the United States seems to be associated with higher levels of emotional distress as suggested by the higher rates of admission to psychiatric hospitals of this Puerto Rican subgroup. According to Rives Tobar (1980) when Puerto Ricans move to the United States, often dark-skinned family members are looked down upon by society while other family members are not. Reportedly, this differential treatment helps explain why the majority of Puerto Rican drug addicts in New York are dark-skinned members of White families (Rives Tobar, 1980).

According to Rodriguez (1980), racially mixed individuals who could be considered White in Latin America are considered Black in the United States. Reportedly, in Puerto Rico cultural identification is more important than racial identification while in the United States it is the other around. Furthermore, the way Puerto Ricans in the United States view themselves racially is often inconsistent with the way the general population perceives them. A survey she conducted in New York City revealed that 37% of a sample of Puerto Ricans considered themselves White while only 29% of them were considered White by the interviewer; 13% of the sample classified itself as Black while only 5% were classified as Black by the interviewer; 35% percent labeled themselves as brown as compared to 32% who were labeled as such by the interviewer. Finally, 13% classified themselves as beige as compared to 34% considered possibly White by the interviewer. Two percent of the respondents did not know how to classify themselves (Rodríguez, 1980).

Historically, Cubans have been predominantly White or Black with a smaller proportion of them being racially mixed (Szapocznik&Hernández, 1988, p. 162). White Cubans were over-represented among the upper classes in Cuba while Black Cubans were over-represented among the Cuban poor (Olson&Olson, 1995, p. 50). This helps us understand why the majority of Cuban Americans are White. Eighty-two percent (82%) of the Cuban immigrants in 1960 were White while only 2% were Black and approximately 15% were racially mixed (Olson&Olson, 1995, p. 61). This fact has contributed to the socio-economic development of Cubans in the United States, given the country’s tradition of White privilege.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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