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On the other hand, the migration of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans to the United States has historically been motivated by financial reasons (Sánchez-Ayéndez, 1988, p. 175; Becerra, 1988, pp. 143-4). The 2000 U.S. Census reported that in 1998 the poverty rate for Mexicans and Puerto Ricans was 31% compared to 14% for Cubans (www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/1999/cb99-188.html). The initial poverty and low levels of education of many Mexicans and Puerto Ricans, the discrimination they experience as a result of being racially mixed, and the lack of governmental policies and programs intended to assist them, hinder the potential for success in the United States.

The experience of Dominicans in the U.S. is very similar to the experience of Puerto Ricans. Dominicans, however, do not come to the U.S. from a territory with a long history of colonialism like Puerto Rico. Their migration to the United States is motivated by the high poverty rate and marginalization prevalent in their country. Once in the United States, many of them must wrestle with problems associated with their undocumented status (Grasmuck&Pessar, 1991, p. 207).

Finally, the experience of Salvadorans and other undocumented immigrants from Central America is very similar to the experience of poor undocumented Mexicans. Immigrants from Nicaragua and other Central American countries who fled their countries of origin because of war have been able to obtain political asylum in the United States. In contrast to Cubans, however, their asylum did not bring with it permanent residence or citizenship in the United States. A legal arrangement implemented in the early 1980’s that allowed Nicaraguans to live and work in the United States was phased out in 1997. As a result, the Nicaraguan community in the U.S. had to go to court to stop their deportation (www.cnn.com/US/9706/24/nicaragua).

Individual and / or group characteristics as factors

According to McLemore (1991, p. 6), the extent to which members of an immigrant group are accepted as equals by the dominant group in a host society will depend on: how long the group has been in the country, the racial and cultural characteristics of the group, the circumstances under which the group came to this country, the extent to which the incoming group wishes to be assimilated, and the extent to which the dominant group wishes to accept members of the incoming group as equals. Out of the previous list, length of residence in the country and racial characteristics based factors. The role of acculturation and human capital will also be included in our discussion of individual characteristics.

Time of arrival

Research studies have identified length of residence in the host country as one of the main predictors of acculturation (McLemore, 1991; Díaz, 1995; Pérez&Padilla, 2000). Acculturation, in turn, has been described as the first prerequisite for the eventual assimilation of any group or individual (Gordon, 1964; Marger, 2000). For this reason it is logical to predict that, unless special obstacles are encountered, the longer Hispanics have lived in the United States the more likely their assimilation will be. Assimilation usually implies that the incoming individual or group will have greater access to privileges and opportunities existing in the host country.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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