# 1.2 Interpretations  (Page 3/5)

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## Subjective probability and a football game

The probability that one's favorite football team will win the next Superbowl Game may well be only a subjective probability of the bettor. This is certainlynot a probability that can be determined by a large number of repeated trials. The game is only played once. However, the subjective assessment of probabilitiesmay be based on intimate knowledge of relative strengths and weaknesses of the teams involved, as well as factors such as weather, injuries, and experience. There maybe a considerable objective basis for the subjective assignment of probability. In fact, there is often a hidden “frequentist” element in the subjective evaluation.There is an assessment (perhaps unrealized) that in similar situations the frequencies tend to coincide with the value subjectively assigned.

## The probability of rain

Newscasts often report that the probability of rain of is 20 percent or 60 percent or some other figure. There are several difficulties here.

• To use the formal mathematical model, there must be precision in determining an event. An event either occurs or it does not. How do wedetermine whether it has rained or not? Must there be a measurable amount? Where must this rain fall to be counted? During what time period?Even if there is agreement on the area, the amount, and the time period, there remains ambiguity: one cannot say with logical certainty the event did occur orit did not occur. Nevertheless, in this and other similar situations, use of the concept of an event may be helpful even if the description is notdefinitive. There is usually enough practical agreement for the concept to be useful.
• What does a 30 percent probability of rain mean? Does it mean that if the prediction is correct, 30 percent of the areaindicated will get rain (in an agreed amount) during the specified time period? Or does it mean that 30 percent of the occasions on which such aprediction is made there will be significant rainfall in the area during the specified time period? Again, the latter alternative may well hide afrequency interpretation. Does the statement mean that it rains 30 percent of the times when conditions are similar to current conditions?

Regardless of the interpretation, there is some ambiguity about the event and whether it has occurred. And there is some difficulty with knowinghow to interpret the probability figure. While the precise meaning of a 30 percent probability of rain may be difficult to determine, it isgenerally useful to know whether the conditions lead to a 20 percent or a 30 percent or a 40 percent probability assignment. And there is no doubt that asweather forecasting technology and methodology continue to improve the weather probability assessments will become increasingly useful.

Another common type of probability situation involves determining the distribution of some characteristic over a population—usually by a survey. Thesedata are used to answer the question: What is the probability (likelihood) that a member of the population, chosen “at random” (i.e., on an equallylikely basis) will have a certain characteristic?

#### Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
A fair die is tossed 180 times. Find the probability P that the face 6 will appear between 29 and 32 times inclusive
Samson Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Applied probability. OpenStax CNX. Aug 31, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10708/1.6
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 By By Danielrosenberger