# 1.17 Machine learning lecture 18

MachineLearning-Lecture17

Instructor (Andrew Ng) :Okay, good morning. Welcome back. So I hope all of you had a good Thanksgiving break. After the problem sets, I suspect many of us needed one. Just one quick announcement so as I announced by email a few days ago, this afternoon we’ll be doing another tape ahead of lecture, so I won’t physically be here on Wednesday, and so we’ll be taping this Wednesday’s lecture ahead of time. If you’re free this afternoon, please come to that; it’ll be at 3:45 p.m. in the Skilling Auditorium in Skilling 193 at 3:45. But of course, you can also just show up in class as usual at the usual time or just watch it online as usual also.

Okay, welcome back. What I want to do today is continue our discussion on Reinforcement Learning in MDPs. Quite a long topic for me to go over today, so most of today’s lecture will be on continuous state MDPs, and in particular, algorithms for solving continuous state MDPs, so I’ll talk just very briefly about discretization. I’ll spend a lot of time talking about models, assimilators of MDPs, and then talk about one algorithm called fitted value iteration and two functions which builds on that, and then hopefully, I’ll have time to get to a second algorithm called, approximate policy iteration

Just to recap, right, in the previous lecture, I defined the Reinforcement Learning problem and I defined MDPs, so let me just recap the notation. I said that an MDP or a Markov Decision Process, was a ? tuple, comprising those things and the running example of those using last time was this one right, adapted from the Russell and Norvig AI textbook. So in this example MDP that I was using, it had 11 states, so that’s where S was. The actions were compass directions: north, south, east and west.

The state transition probability is to capture chance of your transitioning to every state when you take any action in any other given state and so in our example that captured the stochastic dynamics of our robot wondering around [inaudible], and we said if you take the action north and the south, you have a .8 chance of actually going north and .1 chance of veering off, so that .1 chance of veering off to the right so said model of the robot’s noisy dynamic with a [inaudible]and the reward function was that +/-1 at the absorbing states and -0.02 elsewhere. This is an example of an MDP, and that’s what these five things were. Oh, and I used a discount factor G of usually a number slightly less than one, so that’s the 0.99. And so our goal was to find the policy, the control policy and that’s at ?, which is a function mapping from the states of the actions that tells us what action to take in every state, and our goal was to find a policy that maximizes the expected value of our total payoff. So we want to find a policy. Well, let’s see. We define value functions Vp (s) to be equal to this. We said that the value of a policy ? from State S was given by the expected value of the sum of discounted rewards, conditioned on your executing the policy ? and you’re stating off your [inaudible] to say in the State S, and so our strategy for finding the policy was sort of comprised of two steps. So the goal is to find a good policy that maximizes the suspected value of the sum of discounted rewards, and so I said last time that one strategy for finding the [inaudible]of a policy is to first compute the optimal value function which I denoted V*(s) and is defined like that. It’s the maximum value that any policy can obtain, and for example, the optimal value function for that MDP looks like this. So in other words, starting from any of these states, what’s the expected value of the sum of discounted rewards you get, so this is V*. We also said that once you’ve found V*, you can compute the optimal policy using this.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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