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Africa

Back to Africa: 0 to A.D. 100

Northeast africa

The kingdoms of Meroe and Axum continued to develop. (See page 292) Egypt was under the rule of the Roman emperor, but beyond the mouth of the Nile, the country was actually little touched by Romanization. The royal custom of brother-sister marriage had been copied by the lower classes, and it has been estimated that by this century two-thirds of the citizens of Arsinoe were off spring of sibling unions. Alexandria was now a great trade center containing some 500,000 people, receiving goods from Red Sea ports and exporting its own manufactured products such as linen, processed Arabian drugs, Indian perfumes, papyrus, glass-ware and Egyptian grain. This city which originally was one of the greatest of the Greek cities, gradually became more and more oriental. Strife between Greeks and Jews resulted in massacres; soldiers mutinied and taxes soared.

Ptolemy, or Claudius Ptolemaeus

Not to be confused with the pharoahs of the B.C. centuries
, was a great scientist concerned with the Alexandrian library in this century. Inspired by Hipparchus, who appeared to have provided one of the links between Babylonian and Greek science, Ptolemy wrote a mathematical treatise which became known as the Almagest. The 360 degree circle of the Babylonians was used, trigonometry was promoted and astronomy advanced, although with some errors. With 1,002 stars catalogued the heaven was considered spherical and as rotating around the immobile earth sphere. This concept made Ptolemy's theories very acceptable to the theologians of the later Middle Ages. He did have a system showing relationships of stars and planets which was effective from the practical standpoint. He also wrote a Geographical Treatise which included the geography of Marinus of Tyre. (Ref. 48 )

North central and northwest africa

North Africa remained the granary of Rome, with the Moors as the dominant people of the area now developing considerable sea-power and prestige. The Moors were of Berber origin (later with an Arab mixture) and came originally from south of Morocco in the country of present Mauretania, on the great Atlantic bulge of Africa. In about A.D. 125 a locust invasion destroyed large areas of cropland and this was followed by a plague which killed perhaps 500,000 in Numidia and possibly 150,000 more on the coast. (Ref. 222 )

Subsaharan africa

The changes in central, eastern and southern Africa were very slow. As noted in the last chapter, the introduction of wet zone crops like the yam and banana allowed better penetration of the Bantu-speaking blacks into the forest and low-lying river valleys and coastal plains. They also continued to drift south along the Indian Ocean coast. (Ref. 68 )

Forward to Africa: A.D. 201 to 300

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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