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Key concepts and summary

When reactions are carried out using less-than-stoichiometric quantities of reactants, the amount of product generated will be determined by the limiting reactant. The amount of product generated by a chemical reaction is its actual yield. This yield is often less than the amount of product predicted by the stoichiometry of the balanced chemical equation representing the reaction (its theoretical yield). The extent to which a reaction generates the theoretical amount of product is expressed as its percent yield.

Key equations

  • percent yield = ( actual yield theoretical yield ) × 100

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

The following quantities are placed in a container: 1.5 × 10 24 atoms of hydrogen, 1.0 mol of sulfur, and 88.0 g of diatomic oxygen.

(a) What is the total mass in grams for the collection of all three elements?

(b) What is the total number of moles of atoms for the three elements?

(c) If the mixture of the three elements formed a compound with molecules that contain two hydrogen atoms, one sulfur atom, and four oxygen atoms, which substance is consumed first?

(d) How many atoms of each remaining element would remain unreacted in the change described in (c)?

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What is the limiting reactant in a reaction that produces sodium chloride from 8 g of sodium and 8 g of diatomic chlorine?

The limiting reactant is Cl2.

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Which of the postulates of Dalton's atomic theory explains why we can calculate a theoretical yield for a chemical reaction?

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A student isolated 25 g of a compound following a procedure that would theoretically yield 81 g. What was his percent yield?

Percent yield = 31%

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A sample of 0.53 g of carbon dioxide was obtained by heating 1.31 g of calcium carbonate. What is the percent yield for this reaction?

CaCO 3 ( s ) CaO ( s ) + CO 2 ( s )

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Freon-12, CCl 2 F 2 , is prepared from CCl 4 by reaction with HF. The other product of this reaction is HCl. Outline the steps needed to determine the percent yield of a reaction that produces 12.5 g of CCl 2 F 2 from 32.9 g of CCl 4 . Freon-12 has been banned and is no longer used as a refrigerant because it catalyzes the decomposition of ozone and has a very long lifetime in the atmosphere. Determine the percent yield.

g CCl 4 mol CCl 4 mol CCl 2 F 2 g CCl 2 F 2 , percent yield = 48.3%

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Citric acid, C 6 H 8 O 7 , a component of jams, jellies, and fruity soft drinks, is prepared industrially via fermentation of sucrose by the mold Aspergillus niger . The equation representing this reaction is
C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O + 3 O 2 2 C 6 H 8 O 7 + 4 H 2 O

What mass of citric acid is produced from exactly 1 metric ton (1.000 × 10 3 kg) of sucrose if the yield is 92.30%?

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Toluene, C 6 H 5 CH 3 , is oxidized by air under carefully controlled conditions to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 CO 2 H, which is used to prepare the food preservative sodium benzoate, C 6 H 5 CO 2 Na. What is the percent yield of a reaction that converts 1.000 kg of toluene to 1.21 kg of benzoic acid?

2 C 6 H 5 CH 3 + 3 O 2 2 C 6 H 5 CO 2 H + 2 H 2 O

percent yield = 91.3%

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In a laboratory experiment, the reaction of 3.0 mol of H 2 with 2.0 mol of I 2 produced 1.0 mol of HI. Determine the theoretical yield in grams and the percent yield for this reaction.

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Outline the steps needed to solve the following problem, then do the calculations. Ether, (C 2 H 5 ) 2 O, which was originally used as an anesthetic but has been replaced by safer and more effective medications, is prepared by the reaction of ethanol with sulfuric acid.

2C 2 H 5 OH + H 2 SO 4 ⟶ (C 2 H 5 ) 2 + H 2 SO 4 ·H 2 O

What is the percent yield of ether if 1.17 L (d = 0.7134 g/mL) is isolated from the reaction of 1.500 L of C 2 H 5 OH
(d = 0.7894 g/mL)?

Convert mass of ethanol to moles of ethanol; relate the moles of ethanol to the moles of ether produced using the stoichiometry of the balanced equation. Convert moles of ether to grams; divide the actual grams of ether (determined through the density) by the theoretical mass to determine the percent yield; 87.6%

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Outline the steps needed to determine the limiting reactant when 30.0 g of propane, C 3 H 8 , is burned with 75.0 g of oxygen.

Determine the limiting reactant.

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Outline the steps needed to determine the limiting reactant when 0.50 mol of Cr and 0.75 mol of H 3 PO 4 react according to the following chemical equation.
2 Cr + 2 H 3 PO 4 2 CrPO 4 + 3 H 2

Determine the limiting reactant.

The conversion needed is mol Cr mol H 3 PO 4 . Then compare the amount of Cr to the amount of acid present. Cr is the limiting reactant.

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What is the limiting reactant when 1.50 g of lithium and 1.50 g of nitrogen combine to form lithium nitride, a component of advanced batteries, according to the following unbalanced equation?
Li + N 2 Li 3 N

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Uranium can be isolated from its ores by dissolving it as UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , then separating it as solid UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )·3H 2 O. Addition of 0.4031 g of sodium oxalate, Na 2 C 2 O 4 , to a solution containing 1.481 g of uranyl nitrate, UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , yields 1.073 g of solid UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )·3H 2 O.

Na 2 C 2 O 4 + UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 + 3H 2 O ⟶ UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )·3H 2 O + 2NaNO 3

Determine the limiting reactant and the percent yield of this reaction.

Na 2 C 2 O 4 is the limiting reactant. percent yield = 86.6%

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How many molecules of C 2 H 4 Cl 2 can be prepared from 15 C 2 H 4 molecules and 8 Cl 2 molecules?

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How many molecules of the sweetener saccharin can be prepared from 30 C atoms, 25 H atoms, 12 O atoms, 8 S atoms, and 14 N atoms?

A structural formula is shown. A hexagonal ring of 6 C atoms with alternating double bonds has single H atoms bonded to four consecutive C atoms on the left side of the ring. The two C atoms on the right side of the ring, which are joined by a double bond, are also included in a 5 atom ring to their right. The C atom of this pair that is nearest the top of the structure is singly bonded to a C atom at the top of the 5 atom ring which has an O atom double bonded above. An N atom is singly bonded to the lower right of this same C atom. The N atom has an H atom bonded to its right and to its lower left, it is bonded to an S atom. The S atom is connected to the second C atom that is shared in the two rings. The S atom is also double bonded to an O atom to its lower right and is double bonded to a second O atom directly below it.

Only four molecules can be made.

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The phosphorus pentoxide used to produce phosphoric acid for cola soft drinks is prepared by burning phosphorus in oxygen.

(a) What is the limiting reactant when 0.200 mol of P 4 and 0.200 mol of O 2 react according to P 4 + 5 O 2 P 4 O 10

(b) Calculate the percent yield if 10.0 g of P 4 O 10 is isolated from the reaction.

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Would you agree to buy 1 trillion (1,000,000,000,000) gold atoms for $5? Explain why or why not. Find the current price of gold at http://money.cnn.com/data/commodities/ ( 1 troy ounce = 31.1 g )

This amount cannot be weighted by ordinary balances and is worthless.

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
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Adin Reply
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what school?
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anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, Ut austin - principles of chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Mar 31, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11830/1.13
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