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Appendix III describes the next generation technologies being developed as Optical Lithography reaches its resolvable limit of minimum feature size of 30nm.

Appendix III

Five Alternatives of Next Generation Lithography

[“ Next Generation Lithography” by Eric J. Lerner, June 1999,American Institute of Physics,pp 18 to 21.]

In four decades following the invention of IC chip, speed has doubled every 3 years and smallest feature size has scaled down by 2 every 6 years in accordance with Moore’s Law. This accounts for half the increase in Instruction per second executed by a given Computer of a given technology. The other half of the increase in IPS(instruction per second) has come about by the improvement in the architecture of microprocessor chip. Von Neumann sequential architecture has evolved into parallel architecture such as pipelining, systolic and data flow architecture. This has enabled to carry out complex instruction in reduced number of machine cycles. With the downward scaling of the devices, the clock speed has increased and simultaneously the number of machine cycles utilized to carry out an instruction has decreased. Both these factors increase the computational speed of a given computer of a given technology.

As devices have been scaled down, the line width has decreased. This has required that the wavelength of the light used in the photo-lithography is correspondingly decreased according to the formula:

W = minimum feature size=(according to Rayleigh Equation)=k.λ/(NA)

where NA(numerical aperture)=n.Sin(α) = d/(2f);

n= index of refraction of the medium surrounding the lens and α = acceptance angle of the lens system;

d= aperture diameter and f = focal length.

k= resolution factor.

Lithography underlies the entire I.C. technology. I.C chips are created by alternatively etching the oxide layer and creating a window pattern, through the window pattern carrying out the diffusion of dopents or implanting the dopents. Etching out a window pattern involves a pattern of photo resist imprinted on the chip through Photo Lithography Technique. The photo-lithography involves masks. Masks consist of chromium lines laid on quartz substrate. They are generated by computer controlled electron beams which lay down the pattern of chromium lines. The masks are 4 times larger and wider than the circuit pattern actually required. By optical projection the mask pattern is reduced 4 times to the correct size. This enables the mask generation more accurate and technically viable. In the mask the minimum feature size is 4 times the actual size.

Below 30nm we have to go for Next Generation Lithography. The five alternatives are:

  1. Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography;
  2. X-Ray Proximity Lithography;
  3. Projection Electron Beam Technology;
  4. Ion Projection Lithography;
  5. Improved Optical Lithography.
  1. Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography(EUV lithography):

The equipment set-up has been described in Part 3 of the main text in Figure 3 . The description of the setup is as follows:

Laser produced plasma

↓ radiation

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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