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Appendix III describes the next generation technologies being developed as Optical Lithography reaches its resolvable limit of minimum feature size of 30nm.

Appendix III

Five Alternatives of Next Generation Lithography

[“ Next Generation Lithography” by Eric J. Lerner, June 1999,American Institute of Physics,pp 18 to 21.]

In four decades following the invention of IC chip, speed has doubled every 3 years and smallest feature size has scaled down by 2 every 6 years in accordance with Moore’s Law. This accounts for half the increase in Instruction per second executed by a given Computer of a given technology. The other half of the increase in IPS(instruction per second) has come about by the improvement in the architecture of microprocessor chip. Von Neumann sequential architecture has evolved into parallel architecture such as pipelining, systolic and data flow architecture. This has enabled to carry out complex instruction in reduced number of machine cycles. With the downward scaling of the devices, the clock speed has increased and simultaneously the number of machine cycles utilized to carry out an instruction has decreased. Both these factors increase the computational speed of a given computer of a given technology.

As devices have been scaled down, the line width has decreased. This has required that the wavelength of the light used in the photo-lithography is correspondingly decreased according to the formula:

W = minimum feature size=(according to Rayleigh Equation)=k.λ/(NA)

where NA(numerical aperture)=n.Sin(α) = d/(2f);

n= index of refraction of the medium surrounding the lens and α = acceptance angle of the lens system;

d= aperture diameter and f = focal length.

k= resolution factor.

Lithography underlies the entire I.C. technology. I.C chips are created by alternatively etching the oxide layer and creating a window pattern, through the window pattern carrying out the diffusion of dopents or implanting the dopents. Etching out a window pattern involves a pattern of photo resist imprinted on the chip through Photo Lithography Technique. The photo-lithography involves masks. Masks consist of chromium lines laid on quartz substrate. They are generated by computer controlled electron beams which lay down the pattern of chromium lines. The masks are 4 times larger and wider than the circuit pattern actually required. By optical projection the mask pattern is reduced 4 times to the correct size. This enables the mask generation more accurate and technically viable. In the mask the minimum feature size is 4 times the actual size.

Below 30nm we have to go for Next Generation Lithography. The five alternatives are:

  1. Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography;
  2. X-Ray Proximity Lithography;
  3. Projection Electron Beam Technology;
  4. Ion Projection Lithography;
  5. Improved Optical Lithography.
  1. Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography(EUV lithography):

The equipment set-up has been described in Part 3 of the main text in Figure 3 . The description of the setup is as follows:

Laser produced plasma

↓ radiation

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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