# 1.10 Sampling and data: using spreadsheets to view and summarize  (Page 5/6)

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Frequency Distribution: Introduction

You can use Excel or Google Spreadsheet to construct a frequency distribution from a list of data. The frequency distribution for categorical data is by categories. For measurement data, the use of “binning” the data precedes the process of constructing a frequency distribution. Each bin acts like a separate category into which we can pour the appropriate individual data values. Correct interpretation of a frequency distribution requires that you know this important principle: Bins for measurement data (classes) are based on upper class limits.

With large data sets one will want to use the power of Excel or Google Spreadsheet to do the work once you understand the basic principles. We will demonstrate two processes to create frequency distributions. Using Excel or Google Spreadsheet you can create frequency distributions of categorical data by creating “countif” formulas or using the “pivot chart” function in Excel or “pivot table” function in Google Spreadsheet.

## Frequency Distribution for Categorical Data :

Countif: Countif is a formula that will count cells that contain information that meets the criteria you set in the formula. To enter the countif formula you will need to enter =countif(beginning cell address:end cell address, criteria) so if you want to count the number of people that rode the bus to campus today, you would type into an empty cell =countif(e2:e12,e12). The first two cell addresses indicate the beginning and the end of the column of data that you want to count bus usage separated by a colon sign. The third cell address indicates the criteria or in this case the term Bus. I can copy and paste this formula for walk, car, and bike only if I add in absolute reference into the formula and change the criteria to match the type of transportation of my choice. Try it with your sample data. You will not want a spreadsheet with a list of numbers without knowing what the data means or represents. See the example below demonstrating how to organized data so that you know what your table represents. The Google Spreadsheet has the formulas displayed. The Excel Spreadsheet has the values displayed. There is also a total indicated on the page. The total is produced by entering another formula =sum(beginning cell address: end cell address) in this case you will see that I summed e15 to e18 for a total of 11. If you check back to the cells 2 through 12 which you can do by entering =counta(e2:e12). It will give you the total count of non-empty cells with words or letters of the alphabet. If you type =count (e2:e12) it will give you the number of cells with numbers in the cells. In this case it will be 0 since we have words not numbers.

## Relative and cumulative relative frequency distribution:

Now that we have the frequency distribution of a set of categorical data, we can calculate the relative frequency by creating a third column of data and labeling it relative frequency. For relative frequency we will need to take the frequency of each category and divide it by the total number of students polled. Here we will enter the formula =e15/\$e\$20, a simple division for my first entry “Bus”. Note that I have used the dollar sign to indicate that this is the sum that I want to use for all my data. It is fixed or absolute if you copy the formula to a new cell the e15 will change as I move down the list. Again a copy of the Google Spreadsheet with the formulas shown and the Excel spreadsheet with the results shown is listed below.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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