# 1.10 Sampling and data: using spreadsheets to view and summarize  (Page 4/6)

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Another function that we will use to perform relative frequency and cumulative relative frequency is the absolute cell function . If I wanted to find the percentage of students who arrived on campus by car, I would need to take the sum of students who took the survey and drove a car then divide that number by the total number of students who took the survey. I would need to use the same process to find the relative frequency of students who took the bus, rode their bike, or walked to campus. Rather than enter that formula 4 times you will be able to copy and paste this formula from row to row if you use the absolute cell function. To create a cell that will never change even if you copy and paste a cell to a different column or row you will need to add a “\$” dollar sign in front of the column and row signature. For instance if you want to keep cell h2 constant even if the formula is copied and pasted to a new row or column, you would need to write that cells name as \$h\$2, We will see an application of this as we work with relative frequency. When one copies a formula from one cell to another without the absolute cell function “\$” the dollar sign, the formula is relative and the cell reference will change. Copy the cell that you used to enter =h2+h5 into a new row in the same column (if you entered it into K2, copy and paste it into cell K4. What happens? The value is not the same. Look at the formula bar and it will indicate that the new reference was +h4+h7. Why did that happen? The reference was relative and you kept the same column but moved down two rows the rows in the formula also changed by two. Now, put an absolute function sign “\$” the dollar sign in front of the cell reference. Enter =\$h\$2+\$h\$5 in a cell. Then copy and paste this function to any other cell in a different row or column and you will see that the reference is absolute. It does not change.

## Optional classroom exercise:

At your computer, try this exercise: (1) Download the file, Statistics First Day of Class Survey; (2) Save the file to your desktop and one other cloud or personal recording device (jump drive, email) Be sure to name this file as indicated above (name of project with your full name); (3) open the file in Google Spreadsheet and create sheet labels; (4) save file and open in Excel; (change at least one row or column by wrapping text, right justifying) (5) Clean the data file so that each column has only categorical information or measurement data with all the same units of measurement and any label (other than in the column headings) removed. (6) Enter a formula into a cell with a relative reference and then with an absolute reference. Copy and paste the two formulas into other columns or rows. What happens? (7) save the file again and post in the appropriate Moodle assignment.

## Summarizing Data :

Categorical and measurement data are summarized differently as indicated in the text. Both categorical and measurement data can be summarized by frequency distributions but when we use charts and graphs to display data we will look at the difference between displaying categorical data using pie charts and bar graphs while we will use vertical or horizontal histograms, box plots, or stem and leaf graphs to display measurement data. In this chapter we will only address frequency distributions and the display of categorical data. In the next chapter you will learn how to display measurement data. For the following examples we will use data from the Statistics First Day of Class Survey using only sample data from How did you arrive on campus today? And The number of college credit hours you have completed to date.

are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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