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Another function that we will use to perform relative frequency and cumulative relative frequency is the absolute cell function . If I wanted to find the percentage of students who arrived on campus by car, I would need to take the sum of students who took the survey and drove a car then divide that number by the total number of students who took the survey. I would need to use the same process to find the relative frequency of students who took the bus, rode their bike, or walked to campus. Rather than enter that formula 4 times you will be able to copy and paste this formula from row to row if you use the absolute cell function. To create a cell that will never change even if you copy and paste a cell to a different column or row you will need to add a “$” dollar sign in front of the column and row signature. For instance if you want to keep cell h2 constant even if the formula is copied and pasted to a new row or column, you would need to write that cells name as $h$2, We will see an application of this as we work with relative frequency. When one copies a formula from one cell to another without the absolute cell function “$” the dollar sign, the formula is relative and the cell reference will change. Copy the cell that you used to enter =h2+h5 into a new row in the same column (if you entered it into K2, copy and paste it into cell K4. What happens? The value is not the same. Look at the formula bar and it will indicate that the new reference was +h4+h7. Why did that happen? The reference was relative and you kept the same column but moved down two rows the rows in the formula also changed by two. Now, put an absolute function sign “$” the dollar sign in front of the cell reference. Enter =$h$2+$h$5 in a cell. Then copy and paste this function to any other cell in a different row or column and you will see that the reference is absolute. It does not change.

Optional classroom exercise:

At your computer, try this exercise: (1) Download the file, Statistics First Day of Class Survey; (2) Save the file to your desktop and one other cloud or personal recording device (jump drive, email) Be sure to name this file as indicated above (name of project with your full name); (3) open the file in Google Spreadsheet and create sheet labels; (4) save file and open in Excel; (change at least one row or column by wrapping text, right justifying) (5) Clean the data file so that each column has only categorical information or measurement data with all the same units of measurement and any label (other than in the column headings) removed. (6) Enter a formula into a cell with a relative reference and then with an absolute reference. Copy and paste the two formulas into other columns or rows. What happens? (7) save the file again and post in the appropriate Moodle assignment.

Summarizing Data :

Categorical and measurement data are summarized differently as indicated in the text. Both categorical and measurement data can be summarized by frequency distributions but when we use charts and graphs to display data we will look at the difference between displaying categorical data using pie charts and bar graphs while we will use vertical or horizontal histograms, box plots, or stem and leaf graphs to display measurement data. In this chapter we will only address frequency distributions and the display of categorical data. In the next chapter you will learn how to display measurement data. For the following examples we will use data from the Statistics First Day of Class Survey using only sample data from How did you arrive on campus today? And The number of college credit hours you have completed to date.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collaborative statistics using spreadsheets. OpenStax CNX. Jan 05, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11521/1.23
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