1.10 Sampling and data: frequency, relative frequency, and cumulative

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This module introduces the concepts of frequency, relative frequency, and cumulative relative frequency, and the relationship between these measures. Students will have the opportunity to interpret data through the sample problems provided.Labs modified to include minitabs.

Twenty students were asked how many hours they worked per day. Their responses, in hours, are listed below:

• 5
• 6
• 3
• 3
• 2
• 4
• 7
• 5
• 2
• 3
• 5
• 6
• 5
• 4
• 4
• 3
• 5
• 2
• 5
• 3

Below is a frequency table listing the different data values in ascending order and their frequencies.

Frequency table of student work hours
DATA VALUE FREQUENCY
2 3
3 5
4 3
5 6
6 2
7 1

A frequency is the number of times a given datum occurs in a data set. According to the table above, there are three students who work 2 hours, five students who work 3 hours, etc. The total of the frequency column, 20, represents the total number of students included in the sample.

A relative frequency is the fraction of times an answer occurs. To find the relative frequencies, divide each frequency by the total number of students in the sample - in this case, 20. Relative frequencies can be written as fractions, percents, or decimals.

Frequency table of student work hours w/ realative frequency
DATA VALUE FREQUENCY RELATIVE FREQUENCY
2 3 $\frac{3}{20}$ or 0.15
3 5 $\frac{5}{20}$ or 0.25
4 3 $\frac{3}{20}$ or 0.15
5 6 $\frac{6}{20}$ or 0.30
6 2 $\frac{2}{20}$ or 0.10
7 1 $\frac{1}{20}$ or 0.05

The sum of the relative frequency column is $\frac{20}{20}$ , or 1.

Cumulative relative frequency is the accumulation of the previous relative frequencies. To find the cumulative relative frequencies, add all the previous relative frequencies to the relative frequency for the current row.

Frequency table of student work hours w/ relative and cumulative frequency
DATA VALUE FREQUENCY RELATIVE FREQUENCY CUMULATIVE RELATIVE FREQUENCY
2 3 $\frac{3}{20}$ or 0.15 0.15
3 5 $\frac{5}{20}$ or 0.25 0.15 + 0.25 = 0.40
4 3 $\frac{3}{20}$ or 0.15 0.40 + 0.15 = 0.55
5 6 $\frac{6}{20}$ or 0.10 0.55 + 0.30 = 0.85
6 2 $\frac{2}{20}$ or 0.10 0.85 + 0.10 = 0.95
7 1 $\frac{1}{20}$ or 0.05 0.95 + 0.05 = 1.00

The last entry of the cumulative relative frequency column is one, indicating that one hundred percent of the data has been accumulated.

Because of rounding, the relative frequency column may not always sum to one and the last entry in the cumulative relative frequency column may not be one. However, they each should be close to one.

The following table represents the heights, in inches, of a sample of 100 male semiprofessional soccer players.

Frequency table of soccer player height
HEIGHTS (INCHES) FREQUENCY OF STUDENTS RELATIVE FREQUENCY CUMULATIVE RELATIVE FREQUENCY
Total = 100 Total = 1.00
59.95 - 61.95 5 $\frac{5}{100}$ = 0.05 0.05
61.95 - 63.95 3 $\frac{3}{100}$ = 0.03 0.05 + 0.03 = 0.08
63.95 - 65.95 15 $\frac{15}{100}$ = 0.15 0.08 + 0.15 = 0.23
65.95 - 67.95 40 $\frac{40}{100}$ = 0.40 0.23 + 0.40 = 0.63
67.95 - 69.95 17 $\frac{17}{100}$ = 0.17 0.63 + 0.17 = 0.80
69.95 - 71.95 12 $\frac{12}{100}$ = 0.12 0.80 + 0.12 = 0.92
71.95 - 73.95 7 $\frac{7}{100}$ = 0.07 0.92 + 0.07 = 0.99
73.95 - 75.95 1 $\frac{1}{100}$ = 0.01 0.99 + 0.01 = 1.00

The data in this table has been grouped into the following intervals:

• 59.95 - 61.95 inches
• 61.95 - 63.95 inches
• 63.95 - 65.95 inches
• 65.95 - 67.95 inches
• 67.95 - 69.95 inches
• 69.95 - 71.95 inches
• 71.95 - 73.95 inches
• 73.95 - 75.95 inches

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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