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Protesters at a rally staged against IBM (photo from San Francisco Independent Media Center).

The main problem in prosecution is that the industry does not have a single overarching and definitive process for manufacturing, and it is difficult to pinpoint one particular compound as causinga certain health problem because some plants use as many as 300 chemicals. Also, many of the manufacturing processes take place inclosed systems, so exposure to harmful substances is often difficult to detect unless monitored on a daily basis.

Executives and spokespeople for the semiconductor industry maintain that any chip workers’ cancers andother medical problems are more likely due to factors unrelated to the job, such as family history, drinking, smoking, or eatinghabits. They also say that over the years, as awareness of chemical hazards has grown, they have made efforts to phase out toxicchemicals and to lower exposure to others. They insist that they use state-of-the-art process equipment and chemical transfersystems that limit or prevent physical exposure to chemicals and point out that the substances used in the semiconductor industryare used in other industries without a major health or safety problem.

What environmental risks are involved?

In theory, attention to cleanliness is in the manufacturer’s best interest not only from a health perspective butalso from an economic. Many chemicals used in the production process are not expensive in and of themselves; however, the costof maintaining these materials in an ultra-clean state can be quite high. This encourages the close monitoring of usage, theminimization of consumption, and the development of recycling and reprocessing techniques. Also, the rising costs of chemicaldisposal are prompting companies to conduct research into alternatives that use more environmentally friendly methods andmaterials. Individual companies and worldwide trade associations were active in reducing the use and emission of greenhouse gasesduring the 1990’s, and the industry as a whole has substantially reduced emissions over the last twenty years.

Nonetheless, there has been a history of environmental problems linked to the industry in Silicon Valley andother technology centers. To begin with, a tremendous amount of raw materials is invested in the manufacturing of semiconductors everyyear.

Moreover, a typical facility producing semiconductors on six-inch wafers reportedly uses not only 240,000kilowatt hours of electricity but also over 2 million gallons of water every day [9]. Newer facilities that produce eight-inch and twelve-inch wafers consume even more, with some estimates going as high as fivemillion gallons of water daily. While recycling and reusing of water does occur, extensive chemical treatment is required forremediation, and in dry or desert areas such as Albuquerque, New Mexico, home to plants for Motorola, Philips Semiconductor, AlliedSignal and Signetics, Intel, and other high-tech firms, the high consumption of water necessary for the manufacturing ofsemiconductors can pose an especially significant drain on an already scarce natural resource [10]. The existence of economic mainstays including the mining industry and the established presences of Sandia National Laboratories andthe Los Alamos National Laboratory make New Mexico an attractive location for high-tech tenants. However, the opening of fabricationfacilities in the state leaves its farmers and ranchers in constant competition with the corporations for rights to water consumption.On average, the manufacturing of just 1/8-inch of a silicon wafer requires about 3,787 gallons of wastewater, not to mention 27pounds of chemicals and 29 cubic feet of hazardous gases [11].

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Pdf generation test course. OpenStax CNX. Dec 16, 2009 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10278/1.5
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