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Semiconductor-manufacturing companies often portray their fabrication facilities as being clean,environmentally friendly, and conspicuously free of the black, billowing smokestacks that have come to be associated with theplants and factories of other major industries. These facilities produce no visible pollution and certainly do not appear to poseany health or environmental risks.

In truth, the term “clean room,” itself is more than just a bit of an understatement. Industry executivesoften boast that their clean rooms are from 1,000 times to 10,000 times cleaner and more sanitary than any hospital operatingroom.

What are the health risks involved in the semiconductor industry?

The use of sterile techniques and the fastidious attention devoted to cleanliness in the semiconductorindustry may perpetuate the illusion that the manufacturing of semiconductors is a safe and sterile process. However, as a rapidlygrowing body of evidence continues to suggest, hardly anything could be further from the truth ( [link] ). The question of worker safety and chemical contamination at chip-making plants has received anincreasing amount of attention over the course of the past decade.

Chemicals used in the manufacturing of semiconductors are known to have toxic effects (image fromFARSHA).

The devices being built at semiconductor fabrication facilities are super-sensitive to environmental contaminants.Because each chip takes dozens of trained personnel several weeks to complete, an enormous amount of time and effort is expended toproduce a single wafer. The industry may pride itself on its perfectly immaculate laboratories and its bunny-suited workers, butit should be noted that the bunny suits are not designed to protect their wearers from hazardous materials but rather to protect theactual semiconductor products from coming into contact with dirt, hair, flakes of skin, and other contaminants that can be shed fromhuman bodies. They protect the silicon wafers from the people, not the people from the chemicals.

Lee Neal, the head of safety, health, and environmental affairs for the Semiconductor Industry Association,has been quoted as saying, “This is an environment that is cleaner than an operating room at a hospital.” However, this boast iscurrently being challenged by industry workers, government scientists, and occupational-health experts across the country andworldwide.

Industrial hygiene has always been an issue in the semiconductor industry. Many of the chemicals involved inthe manufacturing process of semiconductors are known human carcinogens or pose some other serious health risk if not containedproperly. [link] lists ten of the hazardous chemicals most commonly used in manufacturing semiconductors along with theirknown effects on human health.

Chemicals of concern in the semiconductor industry [5].
Chemical name Role in manufacturing process Health problems linked to exposure
Acetone Chemical-mechanical polishing of silicon wafers Nose, throat, lung, and eye irritation, damage to the skin, confusion, unconsciousness, possible coma
Arsenic Increases conductivity of semiconductor material Nausea, delirium, vomiting, dyspepsia, diarrhea, decrease in erythrocyte and leukocyte production, abnormal heart rhythm, bloodvessel damage, extensive tissue damage to nerves, stomach, intestine, and skin, known human carcinogen for lung cancer
Arsine Chemical vapor deposition Headache, malaise, weakness, vertigo, dyspnea, nausea, abdominal and back pain, jaundice, peripheral neuropathy,anemia
Benzene Photoelectrochemical etching Damage to bone marrow, anemia, excessive bleeding, immune system effects, increased chance of infection, reproductiveeffects, known human carcinogen for leukemia
Cadmium Creates “holes” in silicon lattice to create effect of positive charge Damage to lungs, renal dysfunction, immediate hepatic injury, bone defects, hypertension, reproductive toxicity,teratogenicity, known human carcinogen for lung and prostate cancer
Hydrochloric acid Photoelectrochemical etching Highly corrosive, severe eye and skin burns, conjunctivitis, dermatitis, respiratory irritation
Lead Electroplated soldering Damage to renal, reproductive, and immune systems, spontaneous abortion, premature birth, low birth weight, learningdeficits in children, anemia, memory effects, dementia, decreased reaction time, decreased mental ability
Methyl chloroform Washing Headache, central nervous system depression, poor equilibrium, eye, nose, throat, and skin irritation, cardiacarrhythmia
Toluene Chemical vapor deposition Weakness, confusion, memory loss, nausea, permanent damage to brain, speech, vision, and hearing problems, loss of musclecontrol, poor balance, neurological problems and retardation of growth in children, suspected human carcinogen for lung and livercancer
Trichloroethylene Washing Irritation of skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, dizziness, drowsiness, speech and hearing impairment, kidney disease, blooddisorders, stroke, diabetes, suspected human carcinogen for renal cancer

Questions & Answers

what dose it means, operant and classic conditioning in short words?
Mikiyas Reply
scientific method, critical thinking.
jeddy Reply
the dealings with the thought process and human behavior.
jeddy
for acquiring knowledge by experimentation.
jeddy
study scientific study of mind and behavior.
jeddy
scientific study of the human mind and behavior.
jeddy
hey jeddy I have question s for you
Yussuf
hi what is behavioralism ?
jusem
what is psychology..?
Ania
the science of mental life.
Mikiyas
because emotion can't be measured.
marikrizz Reply
only by the person having the emotion.
Jason
it is subjective feeling
suman
only placed within levels of itself
Teena
and accepted as extended or beginning versions of emotions that are completely free of restrictions
Teena
anyone know, (2+2)/2
start
Emotions can't be measured, but they can be recognized. To be able to recognize certain characteristics that'll give me an idea about an individual's state of mind.
jeddy
any one knows (2+2)/2
start
it is 6
suman
anyone (2+2)/2
start
2
fadil
😂
suman
then more then just recognize but to comprehend the emotions being observed separating your own emotions from the situation currently in.. and rationally gaging the environment.. while then pulling each possible emotional vibe or energy exerted from the human being observed
Teena
How does learning influence behaviour
Tumpa Reply
our choice of study molds us and encourages us to practice what we learn. social structure also changes behavior based on the environment and peers. how we learn can be experimental as not everyone lesrns the same. some are more of a hands-on absorber, whereas others may learn better from listening
A confidence from personal knowledge. Not from having been taugbt. knowledge that you learned what was taught.
jeddy
life is choice, be ready for the best and be prepare for what yet to come in your way(Destiny)
Wayne
what is development
Momna Reply
In what Context are you referring to
Hassan
the progression/degression/growth of something. it is interpreted most commonly in psychology as how something is created or formed. ex: When did you develop an interest in psychology?
when refering to physical, cognitive, and social development, these types of development are determined by many circumstances. such as demographics, biology, and personality/character
it is the apprehensions fluency based by the process of configurations to a design based on product/witness series noticeboards to note the stats on order to retail agreements on stated series order.
Kay
Evolving
jeddy
I'm on my first year of a psychology course, is there anything I should know? anything you wished you knew when you just started psychology ? because I feel like I'm walking into all of this blindly
Lia Reply
hello
GOPAL
I feel exactly the same. Just about to start Psychology and Criminology. feeling slightly nervous 🙈
Sarah
and everything is online
Lia
only for a few weeks I believe. Unless I have read it wrong. I believe that they will try and filter everyone in.
Sarah
it's different for every country
Lia
hi
GOPAL
I start 9/14. Online as well.
LaQuisha
I know very little about Psychology
GOPAL
which area are you specialising in
Elle
yeah, everthing your just know, that psychology is everthing come out with, mind, behavior and emotion. and believe, once you study it, you will understand, wjy people act like that.
EDWARD
after a successful job interview,Mr.Abhishek felt relaxed and calm,he stopped sweating and felt hungry,which part of his nervous system was activated
Babaljeet Reply
Hypothalamus
Words
what is the Borysenko model and why is it important?
Sarah
It explains the link between stress and diseases ie.. How long term stress on the mind or body can lead to chronic migraines, ulcers, depression...
Jennifer
I understand there is a link between stress and illness and disease. that when you are in high-stress situations for prolonged periods of time that the brain releases an abundance of stress hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and aldosterone. idk anymore than that.
Sarah
what is the strees anger
Divya
what is difference between illness and disease
Umair
anyone knows (2+2)/2
start
Hy everybody any one who can help me to understand the concept of Structuralism in easy words?
sabiha Reply
If you really considered looking into yourself find the reason of the possibilities or the environment and atmosphere in which you're placed with or without choice in voluntary or involuntary from birth to now, and also consider all existential extensions of yourself including spiritual recognition.
Darling
? and compare them to social,judicial, learned events,experiences, influences and dive into there branches? somehow reflects our mechanic motivations and has an effect on who we are and what we represent. ?😲
Darling
critical evaluation on attitude change and formation those that even exist
COMORDOR
who is considered of a father of psychology
Satyendra Reply
Freud
Lithemba
Immanuel Kant: Critique of Pure Reason.
David
wundt
Namrata
Wundt
Disha
wundt
NishaOfficial
wundt
Naheed
wundt
Jasmine
id say freud but wundt continued his work. let's face it without freud there wouldn't be a psychology practices
Michelle
Freud is considered as the father of Psychoanalysis not psychology
Indefatigable
technically Freud would be the father of psychology because he discovered the id ego and super ego
Bryce
Its kind of a loaded question. There are many early greats in psychology each having their own theories and views. I think it is more of a collective of ideals that make up our current view and understanding of psychology.
Jason
I agree with you Jason. there are Amazing psychologist back then that made the foundation for the field of psychology
Bryce
Wilhelm Winston ryt
Faazi
Wundt
Waris
i agree to you Jason
Welli
is there any name for the fear of dying painfully? is it the same as thanatophobia?
Matthew Reply
hello matthew i am new
Barbara
who is reinhart
Hannah Reply
hello, why are you asking me this?
She
hello, how are you?
Corey
hey Corey, all fine, how are you doing?
She
Hello everyone
Indefatigable
hello
Hannah
Which specialization in psychology interest you? why?
Ailyn
hello, hannah, I'm fine thanks and how are you?
Corey
or she
Corey
hello hannah and corey
Barbara
What makes a personal quality part of someone's personality?
that's a great question 🤔
Love
what do you want to learn in psychogy?
Alyana Reply
I have been observing An incredible amount of people, who are using some kind of stimulant. I'd like to help give advice into their drug dramas. Help Repair their faulty thinking?
Shaun
Learn more about how the unconscious mind Roles behavior
Shaun
Rules *
Shaun
hello
shruti
where from i can learn the rules of unconscious behavior
shruti
what do you think psychology courses are often requirments of different programs to study?
Miah Reply
i was going to say i didn't understand your question. but as I was about to question you about it, I realized what you were trying to say. anyways, psychology majors obviously have the most psychology courses. however, other programs such as Social Work, and Addictions Counseling, or just Counseling
Gaunt
all have a very heavy load of psychology based courses as the actual positions require a strong psychology background and general knowledge of different fields of psychology.
Gaunt
Also, a lot of business majors require atleast one psychology course. So they can know how to read people when making a sale.
Jessi
also fields like health care, education, criminal justice, law, human resources, and marketing all have some type of psychological background thats needed or at the least beneficial to being successful in the profession.
Gaunt
Can anyone explain me Clearly, how to get psychologist licence
Zainab
You pick a college and visit the admissions building. Then you ask to speak to an advisor. Ask them what all you need to do at their college or University. Most require a specific set of classes, 4 years full time or 6 years part time. Then take a state test.
Jessi
any field of work required psychology, because psychology is a sources of knowledge
Musa
hellp musa and hellp jessi
Barbara
well let us think about okay, let's say that you are getting a business degree but on your schedule you see a psychology class, now you are walking down the hall to your psychology class as you are mopping along because you have to take this class. so now the class has started and you are getting...
Bryce
bored that is when you start to open up your book and you see a chapter for behavioral psychology and you just get ingross into that chapter that you didn't realize that the class was over. you now like psychology because psychology is used everywhere
Bryce
psychology pertains to just about everything if not all.
jeddy
The root ology    denotes scientific study of, and psychology    refers to the scientific study of the mind. Since science studies only observable phenomena and the mind is not directly observable, we expand this definition to the scientific study of mind and behavior.
Britnie Reply
resolution?
jeddy
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Source:  OpenStax, Pdf generation test course. OpenStax CNX. Dec 16, 2009 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10278/1.5
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