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Africa

Back to Africa: 500 to 401 B.C.

Northeast africa

Kush continued its prosperity with extensive trade routes. The ruins of both Napata and Meroe still stand today and there are the remains of pyramids like those of Egypt but also Hellenistic pillars, Arabian arches and even hieroglyphs with Hindu-like symbols, all suggesting a cosmopolitan atmosphere. Axum continued to exist still farther south. (Ref. 175 )

The Egyptians revolted successfully against the Persians under the 28th, 29th and 30th dynasties, but late in the century, as we shall see, the Macedonian-Greek Alexander took over the old Persian territories, including Egypt. The city of Alexandria was founded just before Alexander's death in about 323 B.C. and there was soon accumulated there a great research library containing perhaps 400,000 manuscripts in literature, mathematics, astronomy and medicine. Later, as Alexander's empire was divided, the Macedonian general, Ptolemy, took over Egypt and helped make it into a great commercial nation.

North central and northwest africa

A portion of what is now Libya went with Egypt as part of the Persian Empire and then later Alexander's. Otherwise the chief point of interest was Carthage which in- creased in population and power and participated in intermittent wars with Sicily. Between 310 and 306 B.C. the navies of Carthage and the Sicilian Greeks were in a terrible conflict with the Carthaginians gathering a great invasion force of about 1,500 vessels. In so doing, however, they had to leave the gates of Hercules unguarded, thus making it possible for the first time in some years for the ships of other Mediterranean nations to reach the Atlantic. (See WESTERN EUROPE, this chapter). To pay their soldiers, after conquering Sicily, the Carthaginians engaged the finest Sicilian Greek artists to make dies for casting new Sicilian-Carthaginian coins, and these were soon circulating wherever the north Africans had business dealings.

In the post-Alexander period at the end of the century the Libyan Greeks of Cyrene became the major source of learned men at the court of the Ptolemies in Alexandria. Cyrene exported chiefly horses and silphium, an herb used in Roman cooking. (Ref. 66 , 211 )

Subsaharan africa

By 300 B.C. permanent settlement in the Tichit Valley in the southwest Sahara had ended because of desiccation. The Sudanese Negroes, stretching across the continent just south of the Sahara now had iron technology and with greater population, better agricultural methods and possibly greater social cohesion, they were able to expand southward throughout Africa at the expense of indigenous inhabitants whom they conquered, absorbed or displaced. In the early centuries they confined themselves to the drier regions where their cereals could grow. These were the people known in the east and south as "Bantu", although actually the name refers to their language, rather than to any particular tribe. (Ref. 68 , 45 )

Forward to Africa: 300 to 201 B.C.

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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